Economics, management, organization and law in forage production
A. N. Emelyanov, O. V. Mokhan Development potential of Primorye Research Institute of Agriculture under new conditions
The paper presents the main trends in developing Primorye Agricultural Research Institute under scientific sector reforms. Institute gradually implements “The strategy of innovative development in the period to 2020”. It developed goal-oriented program, specified tasks and determined the target indicators and financial resources, designated the final results and parameters of socioeconomic efficiency. Five promising trends were suggested to Federal Agency for Scientific Organizations: animal husbandry, potato breeding and seed production, soybean and rice breeding and cultivation technology, improving horticulture and medical herb cultivation. Animal husbandry and fruit and berry production were marked to be the promising spheres by “The State Program of Agricultural Development in 2013-2020”. 52 crop varieties were bred in the Institute and included into the State Register of Selection Achievements. They are cultivated on 80 % of Primorye farm lands. The Institute is the main producer of original seeds of potato, rice, buckwheat etc. in the Far East. The paper explains the necessity of developing Centers for Animal Husbandry and Potato Breeding and Seed Production on the base of the Institute. All the reorganizations must be aimed at increasing research papers’ efficacy and quality and improving the role of Agrarian Science in the Far East economical development.
Keywords: Primorye Research Institute of Agriculture, innovative development, promising area, animal husbandry, plant breeding, seed production, technology
Grassland science and management
A. A. Kutuzova, D. M. Teberdiev, A. V. Rodionova Efficacy of anthropogenic load and natural factors on a long-term hayland
The field trial started in 1935. 6, 24 and 72 t ha-1 of СаСО3 were applied in July 1935 forming different levels of soil acidity which still affects crop productivity nowadays. Mixture of six grasses was sown for grassing. It consisted of common timothy (Phleum pratense), meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis), perennial ryegrass(Lolium perenne), common foxtail (Alopecúrus praténsis), bluegrass (Poa praténsis), browntop (Agróstis capilláris). Fertilization effect was studied in three blocks: I — extensive cultivation without fertilization; II — intensive cultivation on the background of N120P60K90, III — natural area (no cutting). Sward productivities made up 1.9 thous. of feed units per ha under extensive cultivation due to natural soil fertility and 5.4–6.1 — on the background of intensive cultivation under chalking and mineral fertilization. In 1994-2015 additional increase of natural elements’ mobilization in agroecosystem was calculated on the basis of novel gross energy determination technique. It amounted to 7.7-8.0 GJ per 1 GJ of anthropogenic load. The presented data proves priority of natural forage lands’ improvement in these days lacking sufficient amount of material and technical resources in forage production and agroindustrial complex.
Keywords: long-term sward, productivity, gross energy, anthropogenic load, natural factor.
A. D. Prudnikov, P. V. Tyulikov Comparative evaluation of mixtures which are used as lawns created in different ways
Landscaping cities and creating soil-protective lawn covers, the sward forming rate comes into importance. Using a roll lawn is limited by its cost. As an alternate one can use a geotextile which starts protecting the soil since laying. The geotextile is made as two layers of 190 g/m2 density jute fabric with regularly placed grass seeds between layers. Fabric layers and seeds were glued together with equally distributed organic glue. We observed over the rate of seedling emergence and the early growth of grasses, which were sown into the soil or laid as lawn cover (geotextile). Fast-grown annual and perennial ryegrasses did not differ between each other in these processes. Red and tall fescues germinated on the geotextile one day later. For meadow grass deceleration was 2–3 days. Most of grasses (except meadow grass) grew a little quicker on the geotextile since 15–18 days after emerging. It is educed that the closed sward was formed faster if the lawn was created with the geotextile than grasses were sown into the soil. The mixtures should include grasses which grow fast at the year of sowing (annual and perennial ryegrasses). It allows the accelerated forming of closed sward and enough cohesive turf.
Keywords: lawn, geotextile, mixtures, projective cover, turf cohesion.
L. T. Mongush, E. E. Kuzmina Productivity of perennial legume-gramineous mixtures in Tyva
Stable forage base for Animal Husbandry under extreme continental Tyvan climate characterized by severe winter and dry summer requires developing haylands with perennial drought resistant legume-gramineous mixtures. Nowadays all the cultivated haylands in the republic are old, contaminated and have low productivity. The experiment took place on the trial field of Tyvan Agricultural Research Institute (Durgen) in the period from 2006 to 2010. It was aimed at analyzing nutritional value and productivity of different species and varieties of perennial grasses. The most productive and nutritional varieties of perennial grasses performed as the basis for developing various grass mixture combinations. The paper presents the results of researches conducted in 2011-2014 to develop the sward consisting of perennial legume-gramineous mixtures. Grass mixtures of sainfoin, slender wheat grass and siberian wild rye were analyzed together with traditional for the Republic of Tyva alfalfasmooth brome mixtures. The experiment revealed that the variant of sainfoin and smooth brome had the highest productivity and green mass yield. Yield of green mass made up 10.96 t ha-1 (exceeded the reference variant by 5.26 t ha-1), dry mass — 5.91 t ha-1, feed units — 5.51 thousand, exchange energy — 83.18 GJ ha-1.
Keywords: perennial grass, grass mixture, alfalfa, smooth brome, sainfoin, yield, productivity.
Crop production and arable farming
E. A. Tyapugin, G. A. Simonov, N. Yu. Konovalova, T. N. SobolevaCultivating bastard alfalfa (Medicago varia Mart.) as grass mixtures in north-west Russia
The paper presents the results on methods of developing and using swards on sod-podzolic soils. The research took place on trial fields of North-West Research Institute of Milk and Grassland Agriculture. Bastard alfalfa performed as an object of study. Its resistance was analyzed in mono-, two- and three-component grass mixtures with various gramineous: smooth brome (Bromus inermis Leyss.), common timothy (Phleum pratense L.) and meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.). The highest productivity occurred both in monoculture and mixtures of bastard alfalfa with smooth brome and meadow fescue. Feed units’ and crude protein’s productivities of legume-grass mixtures were 1.2 times lower compared to the ones of bastard alfalfa which was sown as monoculture. Crude protein yield of bastard alfalfa made up 1.8 t ha-1. After a second cut green mass was characterized by high crude protein content and lower crude fiber content in comparison to the first cut. Triple cut of bastard alfalfa during a growing season provided yield increase of 96 % compared to the single one. The percentage of alfalfa in swards stayed high after three years and amounted to 78 % under the single cut, 86 % — under the double cut and 88 % — under the triple cut.
Keywords: bastard alfalfa, cultivation, grass mixture, protein content, productivity.
K. N. Privalova, R. R. Karimov Developing long-term phytocenoses on the base of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and festulolium (Festulolium)
Nowadays grassland management requires improving efficacy of anthropogenic costs by biologization. One of the most effective trends in grassland farming is developing cultivated pastures. Obtaining high and stable pasture productivity requires taskspecific selection of grass mixtures, considering balancing variation of annual phytocenosis composition. Developing novel varieties of perennial grasses adapted to specific regional conditions demands regular improving grass mixtures’ composition. In 1940-1970 Fodder Research Institute bred 25 varieties of perennial grasses. Now the number of grass varieties exceeded 40 including the ones of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) “Karat” and festulolium (Festulolium) “VIK 90”. Domestic varieties of perennial ryegrass and festulolium better tolerate winter that the imported ones and exceed the latter in productivity by 15- 20 %. Field trials conducted in the All-Russian Williams Fodder Research Institute in 2004-2015 revealed biological potential of the above mentioned varieties as mixtures of pasture swards for the period of six years. Moreover, the experiment validated the possibility of developing long-term (12 years) phytocenoses characterized by high productivity, valuable botanical composition and high-quality fodder under decreasing anthropogenic costs for its production.
Keywords: perennial ryegrass, festulolium, pasture sward, productivity, longevity, fodder production effectiveness.
N. G. Pilipenko, O. T. Andreeva Fertilizer impact on soil characteristics in the Eastern Transbaikal
The paper analyzes the influence of mineral and organic-mineral fertilizers on main fertility parameters of meadow chernozems in crop rotation (fallow–turnips–mixture of maze and sunflower–spring rapeseed–mixture of pea and oat). The experiment was carried out in East-Siberian Research Institute of Veterinary Medicine in the period from 1995 to 2000. It was revealed that the system of organic and mineral fertilizers had the strongest effect on soil agrochemical characteristics. In this case manure and N240Р180К180 were applied in the amount of 80 t ha-1 for one crop rotation period. Fertilization increased humus content in soil by 0.17 %, nitrate concentration — by 10-28 mg, amount of soluble phosphorus — by 21-41 mg, exchange potassium content — by 12-30 mg per 1 kg of soil. Applying mineral or organic fertilizers annually or in high rates for several years had similar influence on Р2О5 and К2О content in soil. The difference between variants made up 1-7 % at the end of the second crop rotation. It can be concluded that mineral and organic fertilization is the main method of maintenance and improving fertility of meadow chernozem in the Eastern Transbaikal.
Keywords: fertilizer system, humus, soil nutritional regime, forage crop rotation.
Genetics, biotechnology, breeding and seed production
V. V. Gusev, V. V. Larina, A. V. Khramov, M. M. Khalikova, R. A. Elenberger, V. S. Eskova New white-grained sorghum variety ‘Belochka’
Under deficient precipitation and high temperatures, sorghum is one of the most productive feed crops in the arid regions of Russia. Drought resistance, salt-tolerance, usage universality and good feed qualities are among its values. Breeding grain sorghum, we aimed to receive an early ripening, high productive variety with reliable seed production. In the breeding nursery, plants of MS-line of grain sorghum ‘Saratovskoe 35-s’ have been pollinated by the early maturing variety. Inbreeding and directional selection were used in F1 and succeeding generations. A new variety of grain sorghum ‘Belochka’ is filicauline, low-growing (90–120 cm), with extended panicle which reduces the ingress of leaves and stems into grain while threshing. The plants are resistant to drought and lodging. The variety is well uniformed, shows the accelerated rates of early growth. The duration since seedling emergence to full maturity of grain is 80–89 days. On the five-year average, the variety ‘Belochka’ produces the high yield of grain — 3.92 t ha-1 — and exceeded the early-maturing standard variety ‘Perspektivny 1’ by 1.15 t ha-1 in the competitive varietal trial. The variety ‘Belochka’ has lowered grain moisture content at harves ting (13.2 %) which shows its early ripeness and reduces costs for post-harvest drying. The variety is to be used for forage and starch industry.
Keywords: sorghum, breeding, technology, quality, productivity.
N. M. Putsa, N. Yu. Kostenko, N. V. Razgulyaeva, E. S. KostenkoImproving the method of snow mold monitoring among perennial gramineous
The paper presents the improved method on snow mold disease monitoring among perennial gramineous. Snow mold, caused by the complex of pathogenic fungi (Microdochium nivale (Fr.) Samuels & I. C. Hallets и Fusarium spp.), is a wide spread disease among perennial gramineous. Long-term phytopathological analyses show regular variation in ratio of different species of pathogenic fungi. This needs the improving methods evaluating disease spreading and severity. Disease severity includes poor swards and appearing of multiple circles with no vegetation. Damaged plants grow slowly in winter. Lawn covers stay browngreen for a long period. Methods of snow mold monitoring are developed in detail for gramineous. The monitoring should be conducted thrice a season in dynamics: autumn, winter (sample collection and growing in a lab in January-February) and early spring. The best time for the first monitoring is autumn, the end of September, at a tillering time. Winter grass height reaches 12-18 cm in this period; the leaves developing small (0.3 — 0.7 cm in diameter) or large washy spots. It is recommended to perform mycological analysis before winter together with visual evaluation after winter. It is necessary to carry out visual evaluation of fields considering the area of damaged plants.
Keywords: monitoring, snow mold, perennial ryegrass, red fescue.
V. A. Sergeeva, A. A. Muravev Water availability and productivity for lupine in the forest steppe of the Central Black Earth Region
The experiment analyzed parameters of photosynthetic activity and productivity of white and blue lupine. Climatic conditions significantly varied in 2005-2014 in water availability and temperature which allowed reliable analysis of lupine varieties. 2005- 2008 showed more favorable weather conditions. Hydrothermic coefficient made up 1.1, 1.2, 0.84 and 1.1 respectively in the period of lupine growing season (2005, 2006 and 2008 were optimal in water availability). In 2010-2013 hydrothermic coefficient was 0.5-0.6. Water deficiency in April, May and June led to significant decrease in productivity. In 2011 (hydrothermic coefficient-0.8) precipitations were efficient in May and June affecting productivity of several varieties depending on the ripening stage. Lupine leaf area varied among varieties and depended on varietal features and weather conditions of the growing season. The biggest differences were monitored in the period between shooting and flowering time. Assimilation surface reached maximum values at pod formation time. Varieties of blue lupine showed productivity of 1.06-2.89 t ha-1 for the analyzed period and 1.93-2.15 t ha-1 — on average for 2005-2014. Their productivity varied among varieties and was affected by growing season conditions. White lupine productivity varied within 2.49-2.85 t ha-1 exceeding the one of blue lupine.
Keywords: white lupine, blue lupine, variety, leaf area, hydrothermic coefficient, productivity.