Grassland science and management
V. A. Petruk Productivity of perennial grasses and cover crops in the forest steppe of West Siberia
УДК: 633.2:631.559 (571.1
Cultivating perennial grasses using cover crops provides high yields and therefore low production cost even during the 1st year of use. In this study barley and a five-component legume/cereal mixture were chosen as cover crops as they demonstrate a number of features that makes them less oppressing towards the covered grasses. The subsequent productivity of perennial grasses was studied on two trials established. Comparing the plant stand density under the cover crops, it was noticed that the five-component mixture resulted in lower grass and weed density than barley. Therefore it can be suggested that the mixture had a sufficient depressing effect on perennial grasses as a cover crop. The highest average plant stand density during the two trials was observed in alfalfa. The effect of different cover crops was not observed on weed density. There was little difference in the grasses’ height under different cover crops; however alfalfa formed the highest plants among the legume species and the smooth brome plants were the highest among the grasses. Considering the grasses’ productivity in the trials established in 2007 and 2008, it was found that most of the species performed their best after barley as a cover crop. The highest overall productivity was shown by perennial grasses with red clover; however it should be noted that clover provided an adequate outcome for three years of use only. As a result of a long-term experiment it is found that the overall productivity of perennial grasses and cover crops was maximal in the variants with the five-component mixture and alfalfa with brome under its cover. The grasses developed better under barley that under the mixture, which resulted in higher yields during the first 2–3 years of use. Further on this difference conditioned by the cover crops was leveled down.
Keywords: crop capacity, productivity, cover crops, perennial grasses.
V. G. Khramtseva, R. A. Andreyeva, S. V. Burov Productivity of different species and varieties of leguminous grasses in the south of the Pskov region
To assess the modern varieties of red clover, bastard alfalfa and eastern goat’s-rue in the south of the Pskov region, a research was conducted in 2010–2013, the herbages being cut twice a season and fertilized with Р60К90 in the spring. The most intensive linear growth in the year of establishment as well as on the subsequent two, was observed in the red clover varieties ‘Mars’ and ‘Trio’. The highest sward in 2013 was formed by eastern goat’s-rue, exceeding the herbages of alfalfa by 7–10 cm and red clover by 12–20 cm through the two cuts on average. The most intensive tillering in the year of sward formation was recorded for red clover varieties ‘Trio’ and ‘Mars’ and for the bastard alfalfa. The latter’s cultivar ‘Pastbishchnaya 88’ has formed the most dense swards throughout the subsequent three years of use. Red clovers’ activity in the young phytocenosis during the first year was high and their share in the yield amounted 80–88 %. ‘Mars’ was the most active component, and ‘Pskovskiy mestniy’ had the least share in the yield compared to other clover cultivars. As for the weight ratio in the total yield, the lateripening variety ‘Delets’ exceeded the other clovers in 2011, making 90 % of the aboveground mass. However, it was the most thinned to the third year of use, only 19 % leftin the botanical composition. During these years alfalfa’s share in the swards varied insignificantly, it fluctuated between 87 and 95 %. The maximal dry matter produc tivity of 6.4–7.0 t ha-1 for the three years on average was provided by bastard alfalfa. ‘Pastbischnaya 88’ was more productive than ‘Vega 87’. The most high-yielding red clover varieties were ‘Mars’, ‘Trio’, and ‘Delets’ giving 5.1–5.3 t ha-1 of dry matter through 2011–2013 on average. The late-ripening red clover variety ‘Delets’ was the most productive during the second and the third years, providing the dry matter yield of 7.3 and 7.7 t ha-1. The productivity of eastern goat’s-rue reached 6.8–7.0 t ha-1, exceeding other crops. No significant differences between its cultivars were recorded.
Keywords: red clover, bastard alfalfa, eastern goat’s-rue, species, cultivar, plant height, share in the sward, crop yield.
Crop_production and arable farming
R. F. Galeev, O. N. Shashkova, M. V. Bekasova Methods for intensified production in fodder crop rotations
Intensifying forage production in field crop rotations requires increasing the share of legume crops and optimizing the fertilization pattern in accordance to modern principles and standards. To improve and adjust the techniques to local conditions a field trial with grain and legume-grain crop rotations was conducted in the Novosibirsk region in 2008–2013. The research included two levels of mineral nutrition. Mineral fertilizers applied on the leached chernozem sandy loam of the experimental site, the best increment of 41.9 % was gained on maize. Adding leguminous compound to the perennial grasses increased the productivity of the respective fields in the crop rotation. Strip overlapping of beans and maize reduced the latter’s yield by 3.3 tons ha-1. Combining legume compound introduction with mineral fertilization consistently increases the productivity of all the crops in the rota tion. Mineral fertilization of grain forage crops in the field rotation added 1.99 tons forage units per 1 ha which is 85 % of the check variant productivity. Combined pea and barley crop gives 1.14 tons forage units per 1 ha or 48.5 % compared to the single-species grain crop. Such phytocenosis’ composition under mineral fertilization led to over 1.45 tons ha-1 or a 61.7 % increase over control. Mineral fertilization of the gramineous crop rotation provided 20 % more digestible protein per 1 forage unit. The legume-saturated crop rotation increases this key figure up to 46.9 %. The highest digestible protein per fodder unit ratio was obtained from fertilized perennial gramineous grasses surpassing barley and maize. In the legume-grain rotation the highest digestible protein per fodder unit ratio was reached in oats and vetch mixture both fertilized and untreated ones, used as a cover crop for perennial grasses. The maximal dry matter yield of 6.14 tons ha-1 was obtained from fertilized maize crops grown for silage. Brome and alfalfa mixture cultivation on the second and the third years of use yielded 5.08–5.84 tons of dry matter ha-1. Saturating the crop rotation with legume crops allows increasing its productivity 1.5–2.0 times and improving the forage quality without additional fertilization.
Keywords: crop rotation, annual and perennial grasses, productivity, feed quality, feed unit, fertility.
Васин А. В. Продуктивность зернобобовых культур при внесении удобрений на планируемую урожайность
Increasing the vegetable protein content in feeds is closely linked to enlarging the sown area under pulse crops such as pea, field pea, broad beans, lupine, etc. In the Samara region pea is the most widespread grain legume crop, however during the last years it occupies not more than 10–12 thousand hectars. Te reason is insufficient technological processability of the crop. The aim of the study was to estimate the productivity of pulse crops under different mineral fertilization rates in alternative crop rotations with green or seeded fallow. The following cultivars were studied: lodge-resistant pea Pisum sativum subsp. sativum with non-cracking beans ‘Flagman 9’ and ‘Batrak’; field pea (Pisum sativum subsp. arvense) cultivar ‘Natalya’; broad beans (Vicia faba) ‘Penzenskiye 16’; white lupine (Lupinus albus) ‘Desnyanskiy’. The latter was established by two seeding rates – 0.8 and 1 mln germinable seeds ha-1. The effect of three types of mineral nutrition background was studied: the check variant was unfer tilized, and two test variants received the NPK rates calculated for the productivity of 2.2 and 2.6 tons ha-1 respec tively. The productivity of mixed pea crops was studied as well. Weather conditions of 2008 and 2011 were favourable, and 2009 and 2010 were extremely dry. It has seriously affected all the indices studied: stand density, field germination, plant survivance by the harvesting time and finally the crop productivity. Broad beans were found to be the least drought resistant. The productivity depended on the crop, mineral fertilization rate and weather conditions. Maximum yield in both crop rotations was provided by pea ‘Flagman 9’ — 2.04 and 2.19 tons ha-1 on average respectively. Pea cultivar ‘Batrak’ and field pea ‘Natalya’ were little less productive; the most scarce harvest was gathered from the broad beans ‘Penzenskiye 16’ crop. Dry matter yield was the more, the higher the productivity was. The pea cultivar ‘Flagman 9’ was remarkably richer in digestible protein. Profitability increased with rising mineral fertilization rates. It is economically effective to grow pea cultivars ‘Flagman 9’, ‘Batrak’ and field pea ‘Natalya’. Cultivating Pisum sativum subsp. sativum with field pea (P. sativum subsp. arvense) is 17.26–25.15 % more productive compared to single crops.
Keywords: pea, lupine, broad beans, productivity, fertilizer, mixtures.
V. B. Trots, Z. F. Safarov Maize in multiple crops for silage
Maize silage is relatively poor in protein which leads to forages overspending. To solve this problem there is a need for a multiple cropping technology allowing maize cultivation together with silage crops richer in protein. Yield formation peculiarities, productivity and chemical composition of the plant biomass of maize (Zea mays L.) and the mallow species Malva meluca (Graebn.) were studied as dependent on the placement options: single species stands, one-row placement, cross-row (1:1 scheme), two rows of maize plus one row Malva (2:1), and 3:1 and 4:1 schemes respectively. Single-species maize crop served as a check variant. Maize hybrid ‘Kinbel 181 SV’ and Malva cultivar ‘Volzhskaya’ were used for the study. It was found that one-row placing results in mutual depression. The cross-row placing allowed developing of the highest Malva plants in the binary crops. Maize linear growth rates approached those of the check variant as maize share in the crop increased. The largest leaf area was observed in 3:1 и 4:1 placements. The highest photosynthetic potential was formed by the 2:1 crops. In the mixtures its net productivity was less than in the check variant; relatively high growth rates were recorded in the 2:1 stands. They were also the most productive, giving 21.2 tons ha-1 of green mass and 5.38 of dry matter. The green mass outcome per square unit was mostly determined by the leaf area size. Including Malva into the binary cenosis together with maize induced increasing the protein content in the yield: even sharing one fifth of the crop it provided 28.1 % more protein than the check variant. Cross-row planting resulted in better Malva plants development, and increasing the fat content in the yield. It also had the lowest fiber content. Digestible protein yield was mostly determined by Malva share in the stand. The best economic efficiency was provided by 1:1 placement: it conditioned the maximum forage units, digestible protein and exchange energy yield per 1 ha.
Keywords: maize, Malva meluca Graebn., green mass, yield, digestible protein, sowing method.
Genetics, biotechnology, breeding and seed production
S. N. Ershov, G. I. Ivshin, V. E. Mikhalev, L. V. Yan, N. A. Dokudovskaya Moscow breeding station on service to the Russian science and practice
The main results of a scientific research of the last 25 years are presented for breeding and seed production of alfalfa, common vetch, broad beans, field pea, winter and spring rape. The indices of the elite seed production are shown together with the results of the scientific developments’ introduction process.
Keywords: forage crops, cultivar, seed production, industrial application.
D. M. Pankov Nitrogen fixation intensity and seed yield of Hungarian sainfoin depending on the agricultural practices on the background of bee pollination
The article analyses the productivity of Hugarian sainfoin as dependent on fertilization, seeding method, and pollina tion. The experiments were conducted in the forest-steppe of the Altai Territory. It was statistically proved that the key effect on sainfoin nodulation process belongs to the seeding method, while fertilization and pollination enhances the plants’ productivity. Intensive nodulation was recorded on the roots of the wide-row (0.60 m) sown plants on the third year of use. It was 26–33 % more than that of the drill sown sainfoin with 0.15 m row spacing. It was found that the nodules’ quantity is growing most rapidly in the soil layer of 0.40 – 0.60 m. High seed produc tivity of sainfoin was obtained at wide-row planting with subsequent bee pollination and fertilization, yielding 0.734 tons ha-1 on average, with a 0.410 tons ha-1 or a 128 % increase over control. This agricultural background promoted the most intensive nitrogen fixation in the sainfoin stands.
Keywords: Hungarian sainfoin, nodules, agrotechnics, bee pollination, seed productivity.