General questions of forage production
I. F. Gorlov, O. P. Shakhbazova, V. V. Gubareva Optimizing fodder production to provide dairy farming with home-produced feeds
The rational structure of the areas under fodder crops is substantiated, aiming at providing the dairy cattle farming with home-produced roughages, concentrated and green fodders. It is designed for the average productivity of more than 6500 kg per cow, and the average daily gain of calves exceeding 700 g. Crop productivity is determined by the integral method which is a complex of the most cost-effective cultivation technologies for each crop on the example of the Azov Sea basin of the Rostov region.
Keywords: fodder supplies, feed production, intensification, rational structure, forage crop acreage, integrative technology.
Meadow and field forage production
E. V. Dumacheva, V. I. Chernyavskikh Biological potential of legume grasses in the natural cenoses on eroded agricultural lands of the Central Chernozem Zone
One of the peculiarities of the forest and forest-steppe zones of the Central Chernozem region is an excessive content of calcium carbonate, which is responsible for increased osmotic pressure of the soil solution and severe restriction of the nutrients’ mobility in the soil. As a result, the agricultural phytocenoses’ productivity of the discussed region is reduced. Legume grasses are the valuable component to alleviate the described negative effects. In 2002–2013 we have studied the biological potential of the legumes in natural plant communities on the carbonate soils. In the conditions of gully complexes 45 leguminous species were found, perennial taproot grasses prevailing among them. Lucernes are of special interest. Blue hybrid alfalfa is found in the gully complexes 22 times more often than the yellow one. We calculated the values of general productivity and propagation indices of blue hybrid alfalfa in natural plant communities. High individual variability was found together with intrapopulation heterogeneity and ecological plasticity. Multifoliolate forms of blue hybrid alfalfa bearing 4–7 leaflets instead of 3 due to the so called mf-mutation, were studied. Such specimen were used in breeding the new variety of blue hybrid alfalfa ‘Krasnoyarujskaya 1’ which was passed to the State Cultivar Control in 2012. The gully complexes with chalk outcrops can be regarded as centers of intermutation for blue hybrid alfalfa sustainable on carbonate soils. The multifoliolate forms found in them are a valuable primary breeding material.
Keywords: biological potential, leguminous grasses, blue hybrid alfalfa, multifoliolate forms, mf-mutation, calcareous soils, sustainability.
T. V. Shaykova, T. E. Kuzmina The influence of seeding rates, sowing dates and mineral nutrition background on festulolium productivity in the Pskov region conditions
Providing a sustainable forage basis is a major factor in animal husbandry. Sown grasses can meet the animal requirements for well-balanced nutrition. Festulolium (Festulolium), while showing good winter hardiness and high sugar content, is not sufficiently studied in the conditions of the Pskov region. The aim of the research was to specify certain parameters of agricultural techniques for this crop, such as optimal fertilization background (A factor), seeding rate (B factor), and sowing date (C factor). Three seeding rates (20, 15 и 10 kg 1 ha-1) were tested, three sowing dates (13/V, 23/V and 3/VI) and four variants of fertilization background (zero, N30P90K90, N60P90K90 and N90P90K90) were studied. The meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) single crops with 100 % seeding rates were taken as check variants. Both in the first and the second years of using the sward was cut twice. The data analysis showed that festulolium productivity was equal to that of perennial ryegrass. It was found that in the first place festulolium productivity is limited by moisture conditions especially in the first stage of growth, along with mineral nutrition status. Therefore it is crucial to seed the crop early in the spring in order to avoid the drought period during the seedling emergence. This provides high field germination rate and active development of the plants, allowing reduction of the seeding rate by 25–50 %. Decreasing the seeding rate at later sowing dates leads to higher weed infestation. It is shown that in the conditions of the Pskov region the highest dry matter yield can be obtained by seeding festulolium in the first decade of May on the annual fertilization background of N60P90K90, the optimal seeding rate for this technology being 15 kg ha-1.
Keywords: festulolium, seeding rate, sowing date, mineral fertilizers, productivity.
E. V. Ivasiuk, V. K. Khramoy, T. D. Sikharulidze Forage quality and protein efficiency of alfalfa and its mixtures with grasses under double and triple cutting
On sod-podzolic poorly humic sandy loam, a single-species alfalfa crop exceeds its mixtures with grasses both in forage quality and protein efficiency. Cut twice a season fodder quality declines, however crude protein yield is increased.
Keywords: bastard alfalfa, alfalfa-grass mixtures, protein, fiber.
N. G. Tazina Influence of diverse rates of vermicompost on the productivity of the long-term eastern goat’s-rue herbages
The crops of eastern goat’s-rue are being gaining more and more sown acreage in the Non-Chernozem zone of the Russian Federation due to its high yields of protein-rich mass as well as potentially long period of use without re-sowing or overgrassing. At the same time eastern goat’s-rue is a sufficiently demanding plant in terms of the soil supply of mineral nutrients, which is especially noticeable under intensive cutting. This study has being aimed at revealing the effect of different fertilization rates of a vermicompost “Biogumus” and the equivalent rates of traditional mineral fertilizers on extending the productive longevity of this high-yielding legume. The research was conducted through ten year since 2003 to 2012; the indices of 2011-2012 are of special importance among the other data presented as they refer to the 9th and 10th years of plant life. Usually they are crucial for decision making whether to proceed with using the old crop or re-grassing it anew. The vermicompost “Biogumus” is a product of cattle manure conversion by the earthworm population “Staratel’” bred in the Vladimir region. In our experiment the goat’s-rue crops were being fertilized with “Biogumus” since their second year of life twice a season: during the spring regrowth and after the first cut which makes the most part of the annual yield. Applying mineral fertilizers at the rate of N120P120K120 is equivalent to 8 tons “Biogumus” ha-1, and using N180P180K180 is matching the “Biogumus” rate of 12 t ha-1. During the first four years of the experiment no significant differences between the swards were observed: it is therefore supposed that the well-developed root system of eastern goat’s-rue was efficiently using up the natural soil fertility. However, the further on application of the both rates of vermicompost has increased the productivity of the studied crops up to 11 tons ha-1, and enhanced the root mass formation of eastern goat’s-rue as well. Applying the equivalent amounts of the mineral fertilizers has also increased the yields as compared to the non-fertilized check variant; however the share of the legume has been dropping, and the quantity of the unsown rhizomatous grass, awnless brome, was increased. It was also noticed that the drought-resistant brome has suppressed even such a noxious weed as couch grass. The share of other invasive species was radically decreased at improving the nutrition status of the target crop. All in all, using the “Biogumus” vermicompost was found to be an efficient field-proven method alternative to applying the costly mineral fertilizers.
Keywords: vermicompost “Biogumus”, goat’s Rue (Galega orientalis Lam.), productivity, botanical composition.
Genetics, biotechnology, breeding and seed production
I. L. Bezgodova, N. Yu. Konovalova, E. N. Pryadilshchikova, P. N. Kalabashkin Influence of mineral fertilizers on seed productivity of tendril morphotype field pea
Pea stays a traditionally significant source of vegetable protein among the field crops of the north-western and northern regions. Mixing it with cereal crops facilitates a more efficient use of the soil fertility; however mineral fertilization is still essential. To specify the technical peculiarities of growing the new tendril field pea cultivar ‘Vologodskiy usatyy’ in the conditions of the European North of the Russian Federation an experiment was conducted in the Vologda region. Pea was sown as single species crops with two seeding rates, and in mixtures with grains, oats ‘Borrus’ and barley ‘Vybor’, making 60 or 40 % of the general seeding rate. The productivity of the mentioned crops was studied on a well-cultivated subacidic soil under three fertilization rates: N0Р0К0, N0Р30К45 и N30Р30К45. Through two years of the experiments on average the productivity of unfertilized field pea crop sown with 1.2 million seeds ha-1 was 2.4 tons ha-1; under the application of N0Р30К45 it increased by 4.2 %; additional nitrogen nutrition of 30 kg ha-1 improved seed yield by на 8.3 %. The seed yield of the pea stand sown by 1.4 million seeds per 1 ha was insignificantly altered by fertilizing with N0Р30К45 or N30Р30К45. Throughout the whole experimental period all the pea mixtures with cereals have provided a substantial increase of 0.4-0.6 tons ha-1 as compared to the check variant. On the full mineral fertilization background both crude and digestible protein yields were increased in pea crops and its mixture with oats, the legume component prevailing. The oats-including crops featured a greater crude fat yield per 1 ha. Nitrogen combined with phosphorus and potassium enhanced protein content in the yield of single-species pea crops. Fat and fiber contents varied only slightly, and the ash content went down under full mineral fertilization. Mineral fertilization rates increasing, tendency for 1000 pea seeds’ weight gain recorded in all the variants. Applying mineral fertilizers to single-species and mixed crops has a stimulating effect on plant height. The higher rates of mineral nutrition through the two years of study on average have provided the yield increment of 14.0-32.0 %, crude protein yield increase by 15 % and 13 % higher digestible protein production.
Keywords: field pea, crops, fertilizer, crop yield.
Regional forage production
W. M. Zelenskii Forage resources of the Lower Yenisei floodplain
It is found that in the Yenisei river floodplain in tundra, forest-tundra and taiga zones, net meadow lands occupy a considerable area and they can serve as a basis for the creating a forage reserve for dairy farming.
Keywords: the Lower Yenisei River, floodplain meadows, mechanization accessible (upland) meadows, swamp meadows, productivity.
A. V. Kuzmina Hay productivity of a legume-grass sward in the conditions of the Central Yakutia
It is possible to increase the productivity of the hayfields and pastures of the Central Yakutia by adequately meeting the plant requirements for nitrogen. Nodule bacteria fixing it from the air are an important source of this element. Alfalfa has a remarkably active symbiosis. The effectiveness of underseeding old gramineous swards (e. g. on its 7th year of use) with alfalfa is still an important issue. Together with the effect of different mineral fertilization rates on the productivity of gramineous swards of Psathyrostachys juncea and awnless brome, the productivity of the legume-grass mixtures with sickle alfalfa was studied in dependence on pre-sowing seed treatments such as scarification and inoculation. The latter was done using the local strain of nodule bacteria ‘Yakutskiy No. 1’. The possibility of improving the old sown legume-grass sward by overgrassing it with inoculated alfalfa was also tested. This method has gained 11 % more feed units per 1 hectare. The botanical composition of the mixtures featured Psathyrostachys juncea predominating, awnless brome has almost fallen out. Overgrassing with uninoculated seeds resulted in complete alfalfa perishing, scarification and inoculation preserving its presence in the sward. As for the grasses the most productive were the plots fertilized with mineral nitrogen, and among the legume-grass the ones overgrassed with inoculated seeds were the best. Scarification allowed obtaining feed units yield comparable to that of well-fertilized grass stands. The forage quality corresponded to the second class hay. The most economically efficient variant was overgrassing gramineuos sward with inoculated alfalfa seeds, thus providing the highest dry matter, feed unit, crude protein and exchange energy yields.
Keywords: legume-grass sward, organic nitrogen, nitrogen fertilizers, use for hay.
L. G. Gorkovenko, A. N. Riegher, A. F. Glazov Productivity of winter legume and cereals mixtures and nutrition value of the feeds obtained
Maize is the principal forage and silage crop in the Krasnodar Territory. However even adhering to the specifications, one can obtain 30–40 % less yield due to deficient precipitation in certain years. The way to secure one’s farm against such occurrences is growing fodder crops which use up the winter-cumulated soil moisture to a maximal extent. These are winter legume-cereal mixtures such as winter vetch and wintering pea with triticale and winter wheat. Their productivity in drought years significantly exceeds maize yields. The article presents the results of studying the productivity of legume-cereal mixtures and the nutrition value of the fodders obtained. The research took place in 2011–2013 on the experimental facilities of the Forage Department of the Northern Caucasus Research Institute of Animal Husbandry. The following cultivars were used in the field trials: ‘Valentin’ triticale, ‘Grom’ winter wheat, ‘Glinkovskaya’ winter vetch, and ‘Sputnik’ wintering pea. The 2011–2012 winter periods were uncommonly frosty for the Kuban’; they totally killed the wintering pea crops and partly destroyed the winter vetch, triticale and winter wheat crops. Harvesting and yield recording was done in the end of cereals’ grain filling and fruit formation and bean ripening of vetch. The obtained haylage mass had a high quality. Vetch and wheat mixture has provided a yield of 17.5 t ha-1; vetch and triticale gave 18.2 tons ha-1. The winter conditions in 2012–2013 were typical for the Kuban’ territory; the experimental crops have overwintered well, and their yields maintained as 23.6–34.1 tons ha-1. The ‘Glinkovskaya’ winter vetch has shown high winter-hardiness together with drought-resistance. Haylage quality was studied in the laboratory conditions for the legume-cereal mixtures with addition of the biological preservatives “Albit-LB” and “Biovet-zakvaska”. The latter preserved the main nutrients best of all. The fodders obtained from the studied mixtures are well-consumed. To ensure livestock farming provision with roughages, it is recommended to substitute up to 30–35 % of maize silage with legume-cereal mixtures’ silage or haylage.
Keywords: winter wheat, triticale, winter vetch, wintering pea, productivity, nutrition value.