Economics, management, organization and law in forage production
G. I. Uvarov, A. G. Demidova Field forage production in the Belgorod region
The state of field forage production in the Belgorod region in 1990–2013 is analyzed. Livestock population dynamics, cropping patterns, field crops productivity and provision with the main feeds are investigated. It is found that livestock number has 4 times decreased during these 23 years, the number of milking cows shrank 3.4 times, and sheep and goats population became 4.8 times smaller. Livestock population decline has led to 3.1 times’ land diversion on average. Root crops acreage including sugar beet plantations for foraging use went down 6.5 times; fodder maize acreage was 3.8 times reduced; annual grasses shrank 5.1 times, and perennial grasses occupy 1.5 times less area. Forage crops’ productivity in the region is low. They are fertilized on left overs or stay unfertilized. For the last decade maize silage provided the basic part of the vegetable fodders. In 2013 only 2.5 tons FU were available per livestock unit on average. However the laying-in and storage technologies for vegetable fodders are improving in the region. Thus, during the last 5 years more than 50 % of silage and 84 % of haylage are packed into polymer film, and 90 % of hay is baled.
Keywords: livestock population, forage crops, cropping pattern, forage production.
Grassland science and management
N. N. Lazarev, A. M. Starodubtseva, E. M. Kurenkova, D. V. PyatinskiyProductive longevity of different alfalfa varieties in the Moscow region
Productive longevity of different alfalfa varieties depends on soil fertility, weather conditions, intensity of use and disease incidences. The pasture-type alfalfa (Medicago varia Martyn.) cultivars ‘Pastbischnaya 88’, ‘Lugovaya 67’, ‘Selena’, and ‘Nakhodka’ were tested on well-cultivated soils. On their 5th and 6th years of use 36–72 plants were left per 1 m2, dry matter yields reached 5–7 tons ha-1. Thinning of the swards was recorded both after unfavourable winter conditions and due to the diseases in the summer period. To the 15–17th year of use the productivity of alfalfa-based swards declined to 2.8–3.12 tons ha-1. Being well-provided with P and K on the sod-podzolic soil, alfalfa persisted in the mixtures with smooth brome even on its 18th year of use. 1-7 alfalfa plants per 1 m2 provided significantly higher yields than pure grass stands. Smooth brome is a good companion for alfalfa/grass mixtures for long-term twice a season use. This species considerably resisted dandelion invasions and did not oppress alfalfa. The key condition of smooth brome persistence in mixtures with other gramineous grasses is annual application of N90. Without mineral nitrogen fertilization the swards were invaded by wild grasses and dandelion, and the share of smooth brome decreased to 10–18 %. On moderately rich soils serious thinning of alfalfa with timothy swards was recorded already in the 4th year after sowing. Their productivity declined to the level of 1.58–2.92 tons ha-1. Alfalfa/grass mixtures productivity exceeded that of the single-species timothy crop by 1.8–2.0 times.
Keywords: productive longevity, alfalfa, varieties, plant density, productivity.
T. V. Shaykova, V. S. Baeva Microbiological preparations and their effect on festulolium productivity in the Pskov region
The effect of the microbiological preparations “Azorhizin”, “Mobilin” and “Flavobacterin” on the biological processes in festulolium plants and its two-year productivity in the Pskov region were studied with respect to the sowing dates. As a result it was found that during the first year of life certain preparations influenced field germina ting capacity and tillering. Festulolium seed germinating ability was 7.5 % higher under “Mobilin” treatment, and 39.4 % higher under “Flavobacterin”. The latter also had a notable effect on the number of festulolium tillers before the first wintering. As compared to the check variant the number of tillers after “Flavobacterin” was 8.7 % higher, while other variants showed insignificant or no changes. Festulolium dry mass productivity in the first year of use was 7.3–9.6 tons ha-1. The highest forage yields were obtained as a result of the first two sowing dates. The third one decreased festulolium productivity by 0.4–1.3 tons ha-1 in the check variants and by 1.0–2.0 tons ha-1 under microbiological treatments (MT). Being sown at the earliest dates, the crops’ yield gained 0.4–0.5 tons DM ha-1 from MT application. Festulolium sown in the second period provided a significant increase of 0.4 tons ha-1 after “Flavobacterin”. The festulolium plants treated with the microbiological preparations were found to be more drought-resistant in comparison to the check variants. In the second year of using festulolium crops provided higher yields. Two MT’s developed a positive result: “Mobilin” was efficient at all seeding dates and “Flavobacterin” at the first two ones. Dry matter yield gain provided by “Mobilin” made up to 1.6–1.7 tons ha-1 and “Flavobacterin” application resulted in 1.0–1.3 tons ha-1 gain. Two years of managing festulolium showed that “Mobilin” and “Flavobacterin” were the most efficient for earlier seeding dates, not later than the second decade of May. Treating festulolium seeds with “Mobilin” and “Flavobacterin” resulted in average DM yield of 9.8 to 10.0 tons ha-1, which is 0.9–1.1 tons ha-1 or 10.1–12.4 % more than in the reference variants.
Keywords: festulolium, microbiological preparations, sowing date, productivity.
L. G. Gorkovenko, N. A. Bedilo, S. I. Osetskiy Methods of renovating and enhancing the productivity of natural grasslands of the North-Western Caucasus
Summer seasonal steep mountain pastures occupy 400 thousand hectares of the North-Western Caucasus. One hundred of them have meadow-steppe vegetation. The sheep-fescue pastures with Festuca rupicola as prevailing species are the most widespread, yielding 0.67 tons DM ha-1. The wheatgrass-brome swards with prevalent Elytrigia trichophora, E. intermedia, and Bromopsis inermis are more productive with 1.14 tons DM ha-1. It is possible to obtain up to 6.23 tons DM ha-1 after simplificated grassland improvement and 4.93 tons DM ha-1 after renovation (with 76 % legumes). The fastest method to increase the yields up to 4.93 tons DM ha-1 is mineral fertilization with N60P60K60; producing 6.23 tons DM ha-1 requires N180P60K60. For quick grassland reseeding mouldboard ploughing is combined with double disk ploughing, harrowing and compacting. Erosional slopes with veil humus need boardless chisel ploughing followed by complete sod processing with disk ploughing. The most productive mixtures for cutting were the following (kg seeds per 1 ha): Medicago sativa (12) + Lotus corniculatus (4) + Festuca arundinacea (10); or — Medicago sativa (8) + Lotus corniculatus (4) + Bromus inermis (12). For grazing it is recommended to use yellow alfalfa (Medicago falcata) instead of the blue one, and to substitute the reed fescue with Festulolium. It is recommended to practice fencing rotational grazing of 80 % of the total green mass in each of the 4–5 cycles, cutting the left overs, and autumn harrowing of manure clumps. Sticking to this regime increases the pasture productivity from 2.27 to 5.04 tons DM ha-1 on the 5th year of use. Mowing pasture and N90P90K90 increases the next year yields from 1.03 to 9.68 tons DM ha-1; grazing hayfield increases the next year hay yield up to 8.84 tons DM ha-1. Seeding clover and alfalfa (1:1) into rotary-tilled rows 0.2–0.3 m wide. P60K90 fertilization increases the legume share in the sward from 5 % up to 51–61 %.
Keywords: forage land, grassland, pasture, mineral fertilization, soil tillage.
Crop_production and arable farming
V. N. Bagrintseva Maize cobs’ formation and productivity dependent on growing conditions
The results of the field experiments conducted by the All-Russian Maize Research Institute in the regions of sufficient and unstable moistening are presented for 2000–2011. Maize hybrids bred by the Institute team were tested. The influence of agricultural practices on maize hybrids of different maturity groups was studied in field trials. Maize cob formation and productivity is strongly dependent on soil and climatic zones, weather conditions during the vegetation period and on agricultural techniques. Soil moisture deficit, high daily temperature and low air humidity during the flowering period had a negative effect on grain formation in the cobs. In the region with unstable precipitation the studied hybrids bore fewer corncobs than in the zone of sufficient moistening. Early seeding time and optimal plant density provided higher number of cobs. Preceding crops affected maize cob forma- tion: winter wheat had a better impact than spring barley. Primary tillage also influenced the subject: mouldboard ploughing resulted in higher number of corncobs than surface tillage. Weed control and fertilization increased the number of plants with high grain content in the cobs. Variations in the number of cobs per 100 plants definitely correlated with overall productivity.
Keywords: maize, corncob, productivity, weather conditions, agricultural technique.
N. N. Zezin, M. A. Namyatov, V. R. Laptev, V. V. Kravchenko Modelling maize maximal dry matter yield formation in the Middle Urals
The effect of weather conditions on maize yield formation is studied for the Middle Urals. The optimal harvesting dates providing high cost effectiveness are determined. A regression model of maize productivity is generated via correlation analysis.
Keywords: maize, hybrid, harvesting date, climatic conditions, regression analysis, cost effectiveness.
O. N. Aladina, N. S. Vyachin A brief outline of professional and personal life of Nikolay S. Archangelskiy
Nikolay S. Archangelskiy is a remarkable person in the Russian agronomy science, first of all due to his research of the traditional Russian crops — swede, turnip and beet. Root yield increment as a result of the developed agricultural techniques, was reached by preliminary detailed study of the plant growth and development physiology. During his entire life professor N. S. Archangelskiy had conducted a laborious work on the mother plantations of the root crops, improving their genetic potential. Working on the subject popular among the agronomy scientists — studying plant growth regulators, he paid much attention to the correct substantiation of their use, thus finally providing high application accuracy and good results of the preparations’ use. N. S. Archangelskiy is also noted for his teaching: for a long time he led the Students’ Scientific Society at the Crop Production Department of Timiryazev Agricultural Academy, and trained a number of high professionals.
Keywords: Nikolay S. Arkhangelskiy, agronomy, agriculture greening, forage production, special plant physiology.
Genetics, biotechnology, breeding and seed production
V. A. Korelina, N. P. Zinina Results of oat cultivars’ and varieties’ assessment in the European North of Russia
Oats (Avena sativa) is the best companion for mixtures with legume grains. Selecting its cultivars for green conveyor in the North of Russia is now challenging. Adaptability and yield sustainability assessment of the varieties in the ecologically oriented trials allows choosing the best ones for the given region. 28 cultivars и 20 varieties of different geography origin were assessed in 2011–2013 by their grain and green mass yield, length of the vegetation period, disease and lodging resistance in the European North. “Chernigovskiy 83” was the standard cultivar. Weather conditions during the trial differed both in temperature and precipitation. Moisture distribution was very uneven. As a result of complex assessment the following cultivars were found to be promising: ‘Fakir’, ‘Universal 1’, ‘Lev’, ‘PamyatiBalevina’ and the varieties 127h06, 316h06, 30h2289. Their grain productivity made up to 106–129 % as compared to the standard, and the green mass yielded 92–110 %.
Keywords: cultivated oat, cultivar, variety, productivity, vegetation period.