Economics, management, organization and law in forage production
A. M. Starodubtseva The 25th General Meeting of the European Grassland Federation: society 50th anniversary congress
The European Grassland Federation was founded in 1963 to promote regular international exchange of scientific and practical experience, to facilitate academic and research collaboration in agriculture, and to organize specialized international conferences and workshops. Since 1966 the scientists of the USSR were consistent and active members of the EGF. Academician N. G. Andreev was elected an honorary lifetime president of the Federation in 1980; nowadays he is succeeded by the Russian Federation representative professor G. V. Blagoveschensky since 2000. The current paper aims to convey the main achievements, plans and proposals of the EGF to the Russianlanguage readers as presented on the anniversary General Meeting. The themes “Climate changes: mitigation and adaptation” and “Grasslands and ecosystem services” were solely presented by the EU scientists. The latter one, concerning grassland functions and non-forage use, seem to be gaining more and more interest with the grassland scientists worldwide. Theme 3 concerned non-traditional grassland use such as bioenergy and biorefining. The key paper presented a long-awaited grassland classification by the biomass energy properties. Discussion of the livestock production systems (theme 4) featured the problems of local branding, quality and authenticity control in animal products of grassland-based farming. The outcomes of the large-scale EU research project FP7-MultiSward were presented. This project featured a strategic approach, considering both agricultural and economic efficiency of the multi-species swards, and ecological values together with biodiversity conservation, and promoting cultural and social awareness. Perennial legumes and grasses breeding, genetics and biotechnology achievements were presented by a rather small choice of contributions. Most of them concerned genomics in breeding new cultivars of the most popular forage crops such as red clover and perennial ryegrass, etc. There is a remarkable tendency of overcoming the late historical disconnect between the Russian Federation and the European Union agricultural scientists, new common interests and problems are evolving.
Keywords: European Grassland Federation, General Meeting, congress, publication.
Crop_production and arable farming
V. F. Kadorkina, O. M. Vasilyeva, T. P. Kyzyngasheva Current state and prospects of the field forage production in Khakassia
УДК: 633.2/3:636.085 (571
The current state of the field forage production in Khakassia is analyzed. The ways of improving the forage cropping patterns’ structure are suggested.
Keywords: forage crops, productivity, natural climatic zones, productivity.
V. A. Agafonov, E. V. Boyarkin, O. A. Glushkova, S. G. GrendaMultispecies phytocenoses with new forage cultivars of cereals and pulses in the forest-steppe of the Cis-Baikal region
УДК: 633.25. 253 /. 256:
The promising regional cultivars of cereals and pulse crops were studied. Their biological features, dry matter content and chemical composition were studied together with feed units’ outcome assessment. The highest fieldgermination was of 80.9 % found in barley, however, this crop lagged behind the other ones in growth and development. Pea (Pisum sativum) and vetch (Vicia sativa) plants were the highest during the vegetation (85–91 сm) together with oats (Avena sativa) that approached the height of 89 cm. It is found that oats is also the best cereal component for mixed crops. Its share was the highest in the ripple mixture of 35 % oats with 30 % barley and 50 % pea (per cent of full seeding rate). Yield increment was 16.9 % of the check variant. The best dry matter yield of 5.0 tons ha-1 was provided by a four-component mixture of 50 % oats, 30 % barley, 20 % pea and 15 % vetch. Dry matter yield of all the other variants was about 4.4–4.9 tons ha-1. All the four-component mixtures exceeded the single-species and the two-component ones in terms of feed units’ outcome. The increment was 0.5 tons ha-1 or 15 % otherwise, and the net profit was 12 316 rubles per 1 hectare, the prime cost being 1935 rubles per 1 ton of feed units. Increasing the seeding rates of the legumes resulted in higher fodder yield and protein gain. All the multispecies crops exceeded the single oats crop in protein yield by 34.3–44.8 %, dependent on the legumes’ seeding rates. Protein content per 1 feed unit was 107–119 g.
Keywords: yield capacity, productivity, protein, oats, barley, wheat, pea, vetch.
V. G. Vasin, V. V. Rakitina, E. I. Makarova Effect of seeding rates on the productivity of chickpea cultivars
УДК: 633. 36/37:631.5
Pulse crops are known to provide valuable production due to their high protein content, they contribute to soil fertility conservation as well. Legume grain crops are capable of increasing the productivity of other agricultural phytocenosis. Among the pulses chickpea is gaining more and more popularity, being a fine preceding crop for cereals and other important species. The crop is remarkably well adapted to the dry conditions of the Volga Region, being very drought-resistant biologically. Chickpea gives a valuable product both for livestock feeding and human nutrition due to the balance of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, macro- and micronutrients in its seeds. This article presents the results of chickpea cultivars’ evaluation by their productivity and yield quality, at different seeding rates in the conditions of the Middle Volga forest-steppe. The agricultural technique included primary tillage, mouldboard ploughing, harrowing and pre-sowing cultivation to the depth of 6–7 cm. The seeding machine was Amazone D9-25, the plots were harvested separately in full ripeness. Five cultivars were studied as factor A: ‘Privo 1’, ‘Volgogradskiy 10’, ‘Krasnokutskiy 36’, ‘Volzhanin’, ‘Vector’. The following seeding rates were tested: 500, 600, 700, and 800 thousand seeds ha-1 (factor B). Field experiments of 2012–2013 took place in the forage crop rotation. Plant development was mostly determined by the temperature and moisture sufficiency. The weather conditions provided chickpea undergoing all the development stages in moderate time, and forming the yield in 86– 88 days after being sown. As for the particular traits of the plant growth process, species character was observed both in plant height and growth speed. These are mostly affected by weather conditions, directly depending on luminance, temperature and air humidity. The chickpea cultivar ‘Volzhanin’ planted with 700 thousand seeds per 1 ha was the highest in different stages of development. Plant productivity was found to vary by 25–40 % through the years. 2013 was featured with favourable conditions for obtaining high chickpea yields. Chickpea productivity is found to vary between 1.63–2.34 tons ha-1. The best seeding rate for all the cultivars is 500–600 thousand seeds ha-1. The cultivar ‘Volzhanin’ has provided the highest yields. The chemical analysis of the grain has shown that chickpea is characterized with high yields of digestible protein, of protein forage units and exchange energy.
Keywords: fodder productivity, seeding rate, chickpea, cultivar, productivity.
Genetics, biotechnology, breeding and seed production
N. A. Kindruk, V. V. Bugayov Seasonal fluctuations of seed germinability in certain perennial grasses
Perennial gramineous grsses traditionally prevail in the livestock farming forage basis. One of the specific traits in this genus is seed germinability fluctuation after the period of postharvest maturation, which depends on the season. To study this phenomenon we took several species rare for the Ukraine: thin-leaved fescue (Festuca tenuifolia Sibth.), intermediate wheatgrass (Elytrigia intermedia (Host) Nevski), meadow brome (Bromus riparia Rehm.), fairway crested grass (Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn.), and slender wheatgrass (Roegneria trachycaulon (Link) Nevski). The seeds harvested in 2008 and 2009 were tested; the weather conditions of these years were considerably different. It was found that seasonal variations of germination capacity after 12 months storage were the most noticeable in fairway crested grass. Its peak of laboratory germination index was recorded in June and August, and it was the worst in February and April. Intermediate wheatgrass is characterized by curvilinear type of germinability changes. The germination capacity of the other species was found to vary by 2–6 % throughout the year.
Keywords: perennial grasses, seed production, introduction, seed germination capacity, germinability fluctuations.
О. I. Khasbiullina, E. S. Butovets, L. A. Dega New soybean cultivar ‘Primorskaya 86’
Livestock farming provides a growing demand for soybean (Glycine max) processed products. Therefore new cultivars are required to be created and developed commercially. This is a way to overcome the protein deficiency both in human nutrition and animal feeding. The article presents a new soybean (Glycine max) cultivar ‘Primorskaya 86’ bred in the Primorye Territory. It is included into the State Register for Breeding Achievements admitted for the 12th region of the Russian Federation. The patent number is 7426. The cultivar has been bred by crossing soybean varieties from China and the USA. Competitive variety trial had ‘Primorskaya 86’ compared to the standard cultivar ‘Primorskaya 81’. The new cultivar is classified as Manchurian supspecies, var. lutea, communis certifica- tion group. Its plants feature high linear growth and abundant foliage. Under intensive cultivation practices ‘Primorskaya 86’ can provide a yield of 3.2 tons ha-1. The cultivar responds to high mineral fertilization rates. Its green mass yield is 20.7 % higher than that of the standard cultivar. Soybean ‘Primorskaya 86’is immune and tolerant to the main noxious fungal diseases in the Far East region. Field trials showed the significant advantage of the new cultivar: it yielded 39.7–50.3 % more compared to other cultivars grown in the given region. Growing the new cultivar on the Primorye farms will allow obtaining sustainable grain and green mass yields of high forage qualities.
Keywords: soybean, cultivar, green mass, productivity, tolerance, industry.
G. K. Zaripova Practices of bird’s-foot trefoil cultivation for seeds in Bashkortostan.
УДК: 633.37 (470.57)
Expanding the spectre of perennial legumes with non-traditional species is important for controlling the forage protein deficiency. Bird’s-foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) is of great interest for creating agricultural phytocenoses. It can be included in grass mixtures for semi-natural grasslands or used for perennial pastures grazed up to the late autumn. Bird’s-foot trefoil is charachterized with high winter and drought resistance, productive longevity; it tolerates trampling and poor soils. Using a crop for forage production requires an adequate seed supply. Enhancing the seed production is linked to choosing high-yielding cultivars as well as following the recommended cultivation practices. The “Ufimskoye” scientific unit of Baskiria Research Institute of Agriculture certain elements of bird’s-foot trefoil seed cultivation technnology were developed along with breeding. Early spring and summer seeding dates were tried as well as various seeding methods — broadcast and 0.30, 0.45 and 0.60 row spacing — together with seeding rates of 8 and 10 kg ha-1. The effects of inoculation and fertilization with macro- and micronutrients on the seed yield of birds’-foot trefoil were studed. It is found that the most favourable conditions for seed formation were provided by early spring broadcast seeding. Broadening the row spacing decreased the seeds’ outcome. The optimal seeding rate is 8 kg ha-1 both for broadcast and 0.3 m row seeding. Seed inoculation on the P60K90 fertilization background increased the seed yield by 12.5 %. Applying B and Mo micronutrient fertilizers with P60K90 resulted in higher bean formation and provided a 0.11 tons ha-1 or / 40.7 % increment in comparance to the check variant.
Keywords: bird’s-foot trefoil, seeding dates and methods, seeding rates, PK, B and Mo fertilizers, seed productivity.