Grassland science and management
I. E. Soldatova, E. D. Soldatov Ecological functions of microorganisms of highland soils
УДК: 631.874: 633.2
The experiment included result examination on microorganism quantitative composition in blocks fertilized by biologically active preparation “Ekstrasol” and regional zeolite-containing agricultural ore. Beneficial bacteria positively affected root hairs’ development and their absorption capacity due to active root colonization. The root mass increased up to 8.2 tons DM ha-1 compared to 2.53 tons DM ha-1 of the control. Due to improved nutrient absorption fertilizers facilitated hill phytocenosis development providing 4.37 tons DM ha-1 of tops. Separate and combined fertilization influenced greatly both microorganism quantity and composition. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria quantity for all fertilized variants was 3.3-6.5 times higher than that for control. The fourth variant displayed the highest quantity of actinomycetes fixing mineral nitrogen since organic and mineral nitrogen combination contributed to their development. Cellulose-fermenting denitrifying bacteria showed the greatest activity under “Ekstrasol” application (0.1 % solution) separately or in combination with agricultural ore (2 t ha-1); the linen decomposition madding up 47.4 %. Decreasing soil acidity reduced the fungi quantity in the soil of the trial field from 32 to 12 thousands CFU g-1.
Keywords: pasture, microorganism, soil formation, erosion, degradation, biologically active preparation.
N. M. Dayneko, S. F. Timofeev, S. I. Zhadko Productivity of grassland ecosystems of the Pripyat river floodplain under haymaking
The research was conducted on the floodplain located on the leftbank of the Pripyat River in the Mozyr rayon of the Gomel region in 2012-2014. It included analyses of five the most common grass associations determined according to the Braun-Blanquet method. The sub-acidic soil of the field trial had a low content of soluble potassium and phosphorus; amount of organic matter varying within 1.9-3.9 %. After the two cuts without fertilizing such grass associations as Glycerietum maximae and Phalaroidetum arundinacea were marked to be the most productive ones while Poo-Festucetum pratensis and Poo palustris- Alopecuretum pratensis showed the lowest productivity. Applying N30P45K60 before the first cut and N30 before the second one increased 1.4-1.5 times productivities of these associations. The first harvest provided 70 % of the total green mass yield for both variants. Agrobotanical composition of four grass associations included predominant amount of gramineous and a small part of legumes slightly prevailed by wild grasses. The sward cenopopulation structure represented the haymaking regime. Fodder obtained satisfied the requirements of the Zootechnical Standard.
Keywords: productivity, grassland ecosystem, grass association, agrobotanical composition, zootechnical analysis
Crop production and arable farming
G. I. Uvarov, A. P. Karabutov, E. V. Syromyatnikova Forage crops as alternative to clean fallow preceding winter wheat in the Central Chernozem region
Mineral and organic fertilizers used to maintain or improve soil fertility affect preceding crop effectiveness. Winter wheat fertilized by manure performed well after pea; its productivity improving after sainfoin. But the highest yield occurred after clean fallow. Sainfoin as a preceding crop increased wheat productivity better than pea under mineral fertilization; clean fallow having the lowest positive effect. Sainfoin provided higher values than pea for feed units and protein content but wheat followed clean fallow showed the highest means. The highest net income was obtained after clean fallow; it decreased after pea and was the lowest after sainfoin. Wheat production profitability achieved 160 % for unfertilized variants regardless preceding crop effect. Total costs rose with mineral fertilization; net income and profitability decreasing. Fertilizer single rates reduced profitability by 66 % regarding background while double rates – by 100 %. Sowing winter wheat after clean fallow and pea improved cultivation technology energy efficiency under applying both mineral and organic fertilizers to maintain soil fertility. Previous forage crop planting (especially perennial grasses) is an advantageous practice since crop residues contain different nutrients. It is important to consider farm economy when choosing optimal combination of preceding crops and fertilizers
Keywords: sainfoin, pea, clean fallow, preceding crop, fertilizer, winter wheat, productivity, economy, energetics.
A. A. Klokov, V. A. Gulidova Optimal sowing date for Sudan grass regarding soil temperature regime
Sudan grass has a number of biological characteristics that cause the necessity of accurate sowing date determining. In 2012- 2014 the research studying sowing date influence on Sudan grass productivity took place on Yelets State University named after I. A. Bunin. The optimal sowing date was defined with regard to soil temperature regime for each year characterized by specific spring weather conditions. The soil of the field trial was clay loam leached chernozem. The humus content in the plowing layer was 5.0-5.7 %. Amount of soluble phosphorus and exchange potassium made up 11.7 and 8.26 mg per 100 g of soil respectively. Sudan grass “Kinelskoe 100” was sown when the soil warmed up to 10-12оС (early date), 14-17оС (medium date) and 18-22оС (late date) at a seeding depth. Sowing Sudan grass under the soil temperature regime of 14-17оС at the seeding depth and above 10оС at the depth of 40 cm had a positive effect on plant development and provided the highest crop productivity. The maximum green mass productivity reached 23.0 t ha-1 on the average for the period of 2012-2014.
Keywords: sowing data, Sudan grass, productivity, sowing date effectiveness.
A. A. Zavalin, P. N. Kalabashkin, T. N. Soboleva, E. N. Pryadilshchikova Effect of mineral fertilizers and biological preparations on blue lupine green mass productivity and quality
Mineral fertilization and seed inoculation provided increase in lupine green mass from 3.19 to 4.0-4.3 t ha-1. Applying Р60К60 and N60Р60К60 led to the additional yield of 0.14–0.26 and 0.44–0.66 t ha-1 respectively. Mineral fertilizers had no effect on yield increase after seed treatment with biopreparations. As a result of “Rizotorfin” (Bradyrhizobium sp. Lupinus) use the additional yield amounted to 0.58 t ha-1 under Р60К60 application compared to 0.46 t ha-1 obtained from unfertilized variants; under N60Р60К60 applying it madding up 0.44 t ha-1. “Mikofil” (Glomus intraradices, strain No. 8) affected the best yield increase (0.31– 0.35 t ha-1) under no fertilization or Р60К60 applying. Binary biopreparation seed inoculation had no significant advantageous. 1 kg of mineral fertilizers under “Rizotorfin” seed treatment was paid back by 6.0–6.2 kg of additional DM yield. Fertilization and biopreparation seed treatment increased crude (from 9.0–10.0 to 11.0–12.0 %) and digestible protein concentrations (from 6.70 to 9.05 %); N60Р60К60 background being more effective. Binary seed inoculation tended to improve protein content. Fertilizers and biopreparations positively affected nitrogen accumulation in lupine green mass and soil humification. They also increased nitrogen concentration (1.20–1.26 fold) in soil through plant residues.
Keywords: blue lupine, fertilizer, Bradyrhizobium sp. Lupinus, Glomus intraradices, seed inoculation, productivity, quality, biological nitrogen fixation.
Genetics, biotechnology, breeding and seed production
I. R. Manukyan, M. A. Basieva Breeding winter triticale for grain in foothill zone of the Republic of North Ossetia–Alania
УДК: 633.11: 631.52
Breeding winter triticale (×Triticosecale Wittm.) cultivars with high productivity and resistance to head blight is important now. Fusarium infection deteriorates sowing, commodity and feed qualities of grain. Mostly head blight affects winter triticale under our climatic conditions. Thus resistant cultivars’ introduction is necessary as the least-cost way of reducing disease injuriousness. Both native and foreign cultivars were studied in the collection nursery. The weather was favorable to fungal diseases during the research. The cultivars ‘Topaz’, ‘Ustinya’, ‘Valentin 90’, ‘Ring’ had signs of head blight since heading. High content of Fusarium grains was in the cultivars ‘Valentin 90’ (by 8.4 %), ‘Dokuchaevskiy’ (8.3), ‘Ustinya’ (6.7 %), low content — in the cultivars ‘Pawo’ (by 1.1 %), ‘Almaz’ (1.6), ‘Yasha’ (1.9 %). The yield structure analysis was carried out for estimating cultivars’ poten- tial productivity. ‘Ustinya’ and ‘Pawo’ had the longest spikes, 10.2 and 9.2 cm respectively. The cultivars ‘Pawo’, ‘Topaz’, ‘Yasha’ were notable for productivity — 11.5 t ha-1, 10.9 and 10.5 t ha-1 respectively. As a result of the conducted research the promising cultivar of hexaploid triticale ‘Pawo’ was selected. It has complex field resistance, also to head blight, high adaptive traits and it can be used for creating new cultivars.
Keywords: triticale, Fusarium, productivity, cultivar, adaptability.
Technologies of laying-in, storage and usage of fodder
V. S. Tokarev, L. I. Lisunova, N. V. Konstantinova Crude protein solubility and proteolysis as affected by sward growth stage and fodder preparation technology
Tendency to efficient use of fodder protein and current investigations of digesting and nutrition processes gave a reason for correction of existing methods of feeding and fodder testing. Thereby protein quality was evaluated regarding protein solubility and proteolysis during the processes of hay, silage and haylage preparations. The research studied agrocenosis of smooth brome and alfalfa as the most common one in the Western Siberia. The main aim of conducting the experiment was to determine the optimal growth stage of smooth brome mixture with alfalfa for making forage characterized by lower protein solubility and proteolysis. Silage, haylage and hay were made from plants undergoing various developmental stages such as tillering, gramineous stem elongation and legume shooting, heading and budding, flowering and fruiting. The period from germina tion and spring aftergrowing to fruiting showed reduction in crude protein solubility and proteolysis. As a result of harvesting smooth brome and alfalfa at heading and budding times respectively haylage and hay featured decline in protein solubility in comparison with original plant material. Haymaking technology had no significant impact on crude protein proteolysis but technology of haylage preparation facilitated decrease of the given parameter up to 73.7 %.
Keywords: mixture of alfalfa with smooth brome, crude protein, green mass, silage, haylage, hay, chemical composition, protein solubility, proteolysis.
E. A. Vasileva, N. G. Kovalev, G. Yu. Rabinovich Novel bioconservant effect on spring rapeseed ensiling in the Nonchernozem region
Bioconservants prevent fodder deterioration, improve feed nutritional value and facilitate conservation process. Intensive grass silage production in the Nonchernozem region causes the necessity of effective bioconservant development. The All- Russian Research Institute of Meliorated Lands produced bioconservant “ZhiBiMM” from poultry manure and peat. The Institute also conducted experiments on biopreparation optimal concentration and competitive testing of bacterial started material, “ZhiBiSil” and “ZhiBiMM”. Experiment used different biopreparation concentrations (1, 3 and 5 %) and volumes (1, 3 and 5 l t-1) applied for spring rapeseed ensiling thus making nine variants in total. Bioconservant concentrations of 3 and 5 % with application rates of 5 and 3 l t-1 respectively provided the best results (pH — 4.3; lactic acid amount — 78.1–81.0 %). Competitive analysis of the variants revealed “ZhiBiMM” to be superior among other biopreparations. “ZhiBiMM” significantly exceeded bacterial started material, “ZhiBiSil” and reference untreated variant in organic acid accumulation (9.62–12.55 versus 7.47, 7.63 and 8.42 % respectively). Butyric acid concentration made up 0.1 % or less under “ZhiBiMM” use which meets the requirements of the Standard for high quality silage. “ZhiBiMM” is hoped to be used in Russian fodder production due to positive results obtained and its low price.
Keywords: biopreparation, bioconservant, fermentation, Lactobacillus, lactic acid fermentation, silage, ensiling, spring rapeseed, silage quality.
Aspects of forage utilization
G. V. Stolyarov Balanced diet as an important factor of highly productive cattle breeding in the Gomel region
УДК: 636.084.41:636 (476.
Fodder resources’ fortification is important for animal husbandry production efficiency improvement. Diet structure and feeding technology play a significant role in the problem solution. In the radioactively contaminated zones diets must include fodder featuring permissible radionuclide level to reduce their concentration in milk. The Chernobyl accident negatively affected fodder production and cattle breeding in the Gomel region. Region radioactive contamination complicated forage land and field use. By 01/01/2015 farm fields contaminated by 137Сs amounted to 1180.0 thousands ha. Efficient use of fodder resources and obtaining ecologically-safe products are necessary for intensive cattle breeding in that area. Collective Farming Unitary Enterprise (CFUE) “Brilevo” of the Gomel region is located on the territory having the radiation level up to 5 Cu km-2; 137Сs content in the products meeting the Standards. Area contamination density exceeding 5–10 Cu km-2 requires intensive monitoring of 137Сs concentra tion in forage and milk. Farms displaying contamination density of 10–15 Cu km-2 can use grasslands only after conducting protective measures . 137Сs level of 15–40 Cu km-2 necessitates dairy cattle breeding substitution by the beef one. Paper presents optimal annual silage diets for milking cows regarding the production, zootechnical, ecological and economic requirements.
Keywords: fodder resources, optimization, diet, cattle breeding, intensification, leading farm, radionuclide, ecological safety.
V. M. Kosolapov, S. V. Pilipko XXI International Scientific Conference “The problems of Animal Husbundry intensification considering environmental safety, European Union Standards and alternative energy sources development, such as biogas”