• • • Wild genetic resources in forage grass breeding
From the earliest times wild grasses were used as a fodder for livestock. Modern plant breeding focuses on parent selection as the main step of a breeding program, determining its success. Forage grasses perform as the main source of alleles due to the long evolution process, high diversity and adaptability to various ecological conditions. Different ecotypes and biotypes appeared under the influence of the wide range of environmental conditions. Classification of wild grasses, being the main component of natural phenotypic polymorphism, is of high importance. Developing mathematical models, expressing variety features and localization of domesticated species, plays an important role in breeding programs. It describes plant productivity, forage value, individual and genetic homeostasis. Computerization significantly increases breeding efficacy. It forms research data base and conducts multi-factorial analyses for genotype–environment interaction. Models for plant growth mechanisms and yield formation allow selection of the most effective breeding strategy and trait correlation. DNA technologies are an effective tool in gaining data on promising germplasm. Breeders deal with parental material, characterized both by phenotype and DNA sequence, source of genetic variation. However quantitative traits, controlled by the group of genes and showing high paratypic variability, remain a challenge to be overcome.
Source: https://kormoproizvodstvo.ru/1-2018/1-2018-02-1195/ , p. 29
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