Economics, management, organization and law in forage production
V. M. Kosolapov, I. A. Trofimov Research into forage production, ecology and environmental management
УДК: 631/635; 502/504
The article presents the results of implying the Program “Fundamental Scientific Research of the State Academies of Sciences for 2013–2020” by the All-Russian Williams Fodder Research Institute in 2014. The genepool of the Institute’s fodder plants collection was extended be the expeditions to different regions of Russia. Now it counts 238 species and 6454 units for the breeding work. Five tetraploid, highly heterotic cultivars of red clover are developed, exceeding the diploids in many traits by 15–20 %. A new method of joint breeding was developed for alfalfa to obtain high adaptability and efficient symbiosis. It shortens the breeding process by 5–7 years and saves about 0.5 million rubles. A handbook on organizing forage production on milk and beef factory farms in the Non-Chernozem zone of Russia is drawn out. Efficient methods for multivariate improving the hayfields and pastures in the North are developed. The database to the agricultural and ecological zoning map is created for the West-Siberian region of Russia. The first versions of the State Standard “Artificially dried grass feeds. General specifications” and the Interstate Standard “Animal feeds. Starch determination” were written. Six developments are accomplished by the Institute; their possible economic effect for the whole of the Russian Federation approaches 2.4 milliards rubles a year. The renovated technologies for seed production are aimed at the prospective use on 2 thousand ha with the average economic impact of 6.0–7.0 thousand rubles per 1 ha. The presented innovations for feed productions are supposed for the North-West, Central and the Volga federal regions on the area of 2500–3000 thousand hectares, bringing 2.4 milliard rubles yearly. The findings for grassland farming can be applied on 1 thousand hectares in the Northern region with the expected outcome of 12.8–15.0 million rubles per year.
Keywords: forage production, genepool, biotechnology, breeding, seed production, feed preservation.
Grassland science and management
I. R. Gamidov, N. R. Magomedov, V. K. Serderov Some aspects of preserving biodiversity in the pastures of the north-western Caspian Sea region
УДК: 633. 2/3
The paper presents experimental data on the Kizlyar pastures and the effects of different agronomic, phyto-meliorative and organizational measures for the conservation of plant communities and the prevention of desertification. The low level of feed availability and the poor quality of the feeds are the main limiting factors in increasing the efficiency of animal farming in the Republic of Dagestan. This problem is particularly serious in the north-western Caspian Sea region. In 1959 the desertification process covered 3.5 % of Kizlyar pastures, in 1972 this number increased up to 37.2 % and then it rose steadily, being 89.6 % in 1986 and 92.5 % in 2000. The employees of the Department of Forage Production and Grassland Management carried out several experiments in the Nogai district, located in the north of the Republic of Dagestan. Six experimental plots were made on 200 ha of degraded pasture area. Only local plants were used for seeding: thin- and thickspike wheatgrass, glaucous wheatgrass (Agropyron glaucum) and Bassia prostrata (Kochia prostrata Schrad). To create multicomponent agrophytocenoses, Calligonum aphyllum, Ceratoides papposa and Bassia prostrata (Kochia prostrata) were used. Wheatgrass pastures pay offin the first year of use; Bassia and Kochia ones pay offin 3…4 years. The cost of sand-fixing with Calligonum, Altai wildrye (Leymus angustus) and glaucous wheatgrass pay offin 3…4 years. That was calculated without taking into account the prevention of sand-filling the neighboring usable grasslands. Calligonum is attractive as a spring-summer forage plant and Bassia — for the year-round use. To improve environmental conditions and productivity of degraded pastures it is of paramount importance to provide these lands a two-year grazing-free period. According to the results of the research, a year free from sheep grazing increases the feed output from up to 0.54 tons ha-1. The reference variant resulted in 0.28 tons ha-1 of feed. Two-year grazing-free period ensured a threefold increase that amounted up to 0.97 tons ha-1 edible DM. For a total of two years these areas provided 1.51 tons ha-1; the reference variant amounted up to 0.59 tons ha-1 edible DM. Two-year grazing-free period contributed to the recovery of valuable forage grasses, especially cereals. Before the grazing-free period they made only 10 % of all plants (by weight), after a year of no grazing their share had risen to 25.7 %, and after two years it increased up to 45 %.
Keywords: arid zone, deflation, pasture digression, Bassia prostrata, Calligonum aphyllum, glaucous wheatgrass, productivity.
B. N. Nasiev, N. Zh. Zhanatalapov Current state of semi-desert pastures
УДК: 636.085 (574. 1)
The aim of the research was to develop adaptive technologies of efficient utilization of natural pasture’s ecosystems allowing rapid recovery and increase of their productivity as well as improvement of environmental conditions in the semi-desert zone of Kazakhstan. Crop yield, variation in species composition of cenopopulation by seasons and soil-feeding capacity of pastures were determined. The maximum of phytomass prevailed by Bromus mollis, Poa bulbosa and Anisantha tectorum from the pasture with intensive load reached 0.234 t ha-1 during mass ephemer development. Subsequently the productivity reduced up to 0.12 t ha-1 before the end of the growing season. On the pasture with moderate load where the ephemers were not significant the maximum production of 0.405 t ha-1 was observed in the beginning of June. By the end of summer areas used moderately showed productivity reduction up to minimum values of 0.238 t ha-1 due to herbs’ and cereals’ loss. Agroecological monitoring defined the current conditions of crop and soil canopy of pastures depending on regimes of utilization. Moderate pasture grazing of 65–75 % was preferably while intensive grazing of 100 % led to floristic composition’s and productivity’s variation as well as agrochemical and agrophysical parameters’ reduction of soil landscape.
Keywords: pasture, monitoring, grazing, floristic composition, soil landscape, productivity.
Crop production and arable farming
V. A. Agafonov, E. V. Boyarkin, O. A. Glushkovа, V. A. SolodunForming millet agrocenoses with legumes and spring rape in the Cis-Baikal forest-steppe
This study reveals the best seeding rate and optimum ratio of components in crop mixes of millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) with pea (Pisum sativum L.), field pea (Pisum sativum L.), vetch (Vicia sativa L.) and spring rape (Brassica napus var. napus L.). It was evaluated how the weather conditions infl uence on the plant growth and development and how dates of sowing influence on the productivity of these crop mixtures. The mixtures with vetch proved the most clogging-resistant. At higher seeding rates of the legume component mechanized harvesting of green mass was difficult. At lower seeding rates of legumes the grass mixture proved low-productive. Millet in its pure form has a low nutritional value, and the use of rapeseed as a cattle feed can adversely affect the health of the animals. The productivity of pea-and-millet mixtures was considerably lower compared to all other mixtures. The highest yield of pea-and-millet mixture was 1.8 tons fodder units ha-1, the ratio of components being millet 80 %* + pea 50 %. The highest yield was obtained from the following mixture: millet 80 % + vetch 50 %. It amounted to 2.3 tons fodder units ha-1 the yield increase being 21 %. Speaking of millet-rape agrocoenoses, the most productive variant was millet 70 % + rape 50 %. This mixture gave an increase of 5.2 % feed units. Due to their biological characteristics, all millet-rape mixtures were suitable for mechanized harvesting of green mass. The highest yield of nutrients was obtained from the variants with higher seeding rate of legumes and spring rape. When the seeding rate of legumes was 50 % of recommended, the content of digestible protein increased to 113.4…116.7 grams feed unit-1. In millet-rape mixtures the highest content of digestible protein was in the variant with rape seeding rate of 50 %. It amounted to 114.3 grams feed unit-1. The highest costs were observed when cultivating millet with pea or field pea, net income being the lowest. Millet 80 % + vetch 50 % gave the highest profit.
Keywords: millet, rape, pea, field pea, vetch, mixing ratio, two-species mixture, productivity
Genetics, biotechnology, breeding and seed production
T. M. Struzhkina, N. N. Ivashchenko, M. B. Kochneva The biological potential and winter hardiness of a new cock’s-foot variety ‘Struta’
Cock’s-foot (Dactilys glomerata L.) is a valuable feed crop cultivated both in Russia and abroad. A synthetic variety ‘Srtuta’ with increased winter hardiness and frost tolerance was created in Kamchatka Research Institute of Agriculture. Its productivity is at the level of the standard ‘VIK 61’, about 5 t ha-1 dry matter. The grass mixtures’ productivity and botanical composition were studied in 2010–2014. They consisted of cock’s-foot ‘Struta’, meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.) ‘Severyanka’ and bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) No. 379. The part of ‘Struta’ was 24.7 % for grazing, 39.6 % — for haycutting. The seed productivity of the crop was studied in 2010–2013 at different levels of mineral nutrition. It is low in the Kamchatka conditions, so without fertilizers it varied between 5.6 and 54.6 kg ha-1 depending on the year of use. Applying only P60K60 has not conduced to significant productivity increase. Effective variants of split fertilizing were found: N60P60K60 in spring and N60 in autumn; N60P60K60 in spring and N60P60K60 in autumn. An yearly pattern in seed formation was noticed: under optimal fertilizing in the first and the third years it was 88.2 and 40.8 kg ha-1, in the second and the forth — 158.8 and 241.0 kg ha-1 respectively. Producing cock’s-foot seeds in the Kamchatka region, one should consider this peculiarity and alternate feed and seed usage of the sward yearly.
Keywords: : cock’s-foot, new variety, winter hardiness, morphological features, productivity, fruiting periodicity, sustainability in grass mixtures
Yu. S. Tyurin, V. M. Kosolapov Breeding common vetch: fodder grain and hay varieties
For the first time in Russia there were conducted the tests on the common vetch grain use in animal feeding. The requirements to the base vetch varieties are given here, as well as the reasons for the lack of fodder grain varieties of vetch. A new vetch variety ‘Valentina’ is described. The first step to the creation of a new fodder grain variety was to investigate the seed collections and the breeding stock and find vetch samples with high seed production, with high protein content of the seeds, with low HCN (hydrocyanic acid) and trypsin inhibitors content. Breeding stock estimation revealed some samples with no HCN, some — with acceptable level of trypsin inhibitors and others — with protein of high biological value. Lines 2217-82 and 2219-82, hybrids No. 476, 477, 478, and others proved to be free from cyanogenic glycosides. The minimum content of trypsin inhibitor (37…49 mg 100g-1 DM was found in hybrids No. 484, 476, 477, 478. Samples remarkable for their economically valuable proper ties formed the basis of the working collection. The working collection was then used for creating fodder grain varieties of vetch. A hybrid population was created, which gave birth to the line 2217-82, free from HCN. Zootechnical assessment of breeding stock showed cost-effectiveness of replacing soybean meal with vetch grain (line 2217-82), which later served as the basis for the ‘Lugovskaya 98’ variety. ‘Lugovskaya 98’ was intended for direct use of the grain in the broiler diets. The use of ‘Lugovskaya 98’ grain as a protein component of broiler chickens feed provided good meat productivity and quality due to the absence of hydrocyanic acid and significant amount of amino acids: lysine 5.60 %; methionine + cystine 1.60 %. The acceptable level of HCN in the diet was set: 0.9 mg 100g-1 DM. This amount of HCN practically does not affect the use of nutrients, productivity and livability of broiler chickens. The acceptable level of ‘Lugovskaya 98’ grain in the broiler chickens diet was set at 15 % by weight. Beginning from 2011, a new vetch variety ‘Valentina’ is included in the State Register of breeding achievements of the Central Chernozem, North-Western and Ural regions. According to the state tests for the new crop varieties, the average DM yield from ‘Valentina’ variety is 4.51 tons ha-1; seed yield is 2.24 tons ha-1. ‘Valentina’ is fusariumresistant and adapted to waterlogged land. It may also be a good source of green mass.
Keywords: common vetch, breeding, anti-nutritional factors, fodder grain variety, green mass variety.
Aspects of forage utilization
L. V. Khoroshevskaya, G. G. Rusakova, A. P. Khoroshevskiy, T. N. Dontsova “Laktofleks” and “Laktofit”: bioactive additives for broiler chicken diets
Feed antibiotics affect negatively poultry’ gut organisms causing reduction of natural resistance to different diseases and consequently low productivity. Development of biologically active additives is one of the approaches in overcoming this problem which allow neutralizing the antibiotic’s effect or even substituting them in the poultry’s diet. In 2010 on the base of the poultry farm “Zvenigovskaya” (The republic of Mariy El) the effectiveness of “Laktofit” and “Laktofleks” obtained in Volgograd Research Technological Institute of Meat and Dairy Farming and Processing of Livestock Products was studied. Three groups each consisting of 50 broilers grown for the period of 40 days were formed. BAD application provided the average weight gain of 2.6…8.9 % compared to the reference group; feed input per 1 kg of gain reducing from 1.82 kg to 1.76…1.66 kg. Haematology test panel demonstrated erythrocytes’ and leukocytes’ content increase in chickens’ blood indicating the rise of their natural resistance by 2…4 % on comparison to the reference group. Better resistance, productivity and meat quality led to the primecost reduction of 1 kg of products and sale price increase. “Laktofit” and “Laktofl eks” gave the benefit of 2886.26 and 4558.17 rubles per 1000 of broilers respectively.
Keywords: biologically active additive, “Laktofit”, “Laktofl eks”, feeding of broiler chicken, productivity of broiler chicken, meat quality of broiler chicken, economical efficiency of broiler chicken’ raising
Mechanization, automation and information technologies
V. A. Shilin, O. A. Gerasimova Approbation of mobile shed on grazing complexes
The article deals with the issue of creating favourable conditions for dairy cattle when grazing at the pasture complexes. Nowadays it is of great importance to eliminate the stress when managing the livestock. Numerous research reveals great practical meaning of stress-free livestock management at any process step. The most important step is summer grazing. Proper livestock management can minimize the stress. Under strong permanent stress the cows decrease their productivity and immunity. Typical summer stress factors are: solar radiation and rain. In order to create favourable conditions for the animals there was developed a mobile shed to protection the animals from solar radiation and rain. The mobile shed was developed taking into account numerous research on animal welfare and considering the current aspects of livestock pasture management. The shed approbation took place on the Pskov region farms. The grazing started after the morning milking and lasted a total of 12 hours. Then the cows were driven home for the evening milking. Every day the cows were grazed in a new paddock. Each paddock was 2 ha in size, with productivity up to 8000 fodder units. The grass cover requires one month to recover. The total pasture area was 60 ha. The pasture was divided into 25…30 paddocks; therefore the portional grazing was organized. To protect the grass cover and soil from damage there were organized special areas for cattle driving, watering and access roads. The paddocks and driving areas were bordered with electric fence ‘EK-1M’. Three mobile sheds were installed in the paddock. Then they were moved from paddock to paddock after the animals. The use of mobile sheds led to an increase in the cows’ productivity. This approbation has shown the advantage of comfortable pasture conditions compared to the usual ones. During the hot period the temperature under the shed was 8…10º C lower than outside it; the sunstroke cases were excluded; the animals behavior became more calm due to the lower exposure to blood-sucking insects; the rain protection was satisfactory; specific cost-effectiveness amounted to 2480 RUB kg-1. During the approbation no shed went out of order.
Keywords: pasture, movable shed, receptacle, purse line, wind load, approbation