Grassland science and management
E. N. Pavlyuchik, A. D. Kapsamun, V. P. Degtyarev, N. N. Ivanova, N. A. Epifanova, O. S. Silina Raw material chain development cultivating perennial forage grass mixtures on drainage soils in the Non-Chernozem region
Nowadays developing green forage and raw material chains is one of the concepts of forage production improvement allowing constant providing livestock with feeds from the early spring till the late autumn. Multicomponent mixtures’ cultivation reduces climate negative impact on sward productivity. The paper deals with the three-year investigation aimed at selecting and determining optimal ratio of legume-gramineous including perennial legumes — bastard alfalfa “Nakhodka” and bastard clover “Yygeva”. The research took place on the trial field of the All-Russian Research Institute of Meliorated Lands. Sod podzolic clay loam was characterized by slight acidity and medium content of humus, soluble phosphorus and exchange potassium. Using three-component mixture for chain development resulted in reducing costs for fodder production, increasing feed quantity and quality, sward longevity and diet balance as well as maintaining and improving soil fertility. Based on the results obtained green forage and raw material chains were designed using novel species and varieties of legume-gramineous grasses that featured different maturation times. Cultivating grass mixtures was revealed to be efficient in obtaining high quality plant material for green forage and bulky feed preparation for more than 100 days. It is one of the ways enhancing fodder production efficacy.
Keywords: legume-gramineous mixture, green mass productivity, dry matter yield, utilization dates, raw material chain
E. M.-R. Mirzoev, I. A. Magomedov Magomedov Improving arid lands’ productivity by the soil aeration method
Centuries of human impact on ecosystems of arid territories led to land degradation and desertification which are global ecological and social problems. A huge part of the south of Russia is located in the arid zone and subjected to intense degradation. Improving productivity of natural pastures facilitates increasing livestock number per unit of pasture area. Productivity of natural pastures of arid zones is very low; it does not exceed 0.1 t ha-1. It is caused by the insufficient amount of precipitation fallen in the period of hot weather in summer. The paper describes the soil aeration method developed to initiate air moisture condensation and provide soil moistening. Condensation of atmospheric water vapor occurs due to the temperature difference within the soil-atmosphere system. Growing atmospheric pressure causes water vapor intake into the soil while the pressure reduction removes it from soil. The method of soil aeration increases pasture productivity by 1.5-2 times in the arid zones. In the hot summer period aerated soil accumulates over 22 mm ha-1 of moisture daily. It allows rising in pasture productivity of lands where active desertification is occurring by 0.16 t ha-1 or 67 % of dry matter (DM).
Keywords: pasture productivity, soil, desertification, degradation, grassland, aeration, condensation, moisture, atmosphere, krotovina.
M. M. Khismatullin, F. N. Safiollin, M. M. Khismatullin, A. D. Sayfutdinov Nitrogen fertilizers in cultivating perreninial grasses of various maturation times
Developing grass conveyer for forage production includes selecting perennial grasses of various maturing and nitrogen nutrition control considering sward botanical composition. The experiment analyzed the infl uence of spring and summer fertilization by nitrogen to reduce the negative effect of mineral N on legume grasses. Grasslands were characterized by different level of alfalfa content in grass mixtures. Increased nitrogen rates applied once cannot be effectively used by plants. This makes fertilizer payback 33 % lower compared to double fertilizing. Insufficient nitrogen supply affects grass yield and fertilizer payback along with total yield uniformity by cut. Three tested swards reach cuttng stage in different times. Recommended nitrogen nutrition regime allows harvesting in Tatarstan from 1-2 of June till 5-10 of July maintaining the maximum nutrient accumulation stage for crops. Nitrogen fertilizers must be applied proportionally in two steps to obtain stable high-quality yields of grasses and accelerate dynamics of dry mass accumulation. To maintain alfalfa content in grass mixtures, improve crop productivity and get high-quality feed it is necessary to exclude spring N-fertilization. 30-60 kg ha-1 of nitrogen rates applied before the second cut increase gross yield of feed units by 0.41–0.64 t ha-1 compared to the background.
Keywords: mineral fertilizer, legume, grass, productivity, fodder quality, botanical composition.
V. M. Kosolapov, L. V. Drobysheva, G. P. Zyatchina, O. S. Matveeva, O. A. Starshinova To the 90th birthday anniversary of Anna Sergeevna Novoselova
Crop production and arable farming
G. P. Chepelev, T. M. Slobodyanik, N. S. Slobodyanik, A. V. Chepeleva Effect of seeding rates on eastern goat’s-rue productivity
Eastern goat’s-rue (Galega orientalis) is one of the most valuable forage crops. Its cultivation is profitable since the crop produces feed for livestock from early spring till the middle of October. Eastern goat’s-rue forms dense sward annually due to its ability for vegetative propagation. Eastern goat’s-rue gives no yield in the first year of its cultivation. Rootshoot and winter bud formation affecting crop overwintering and spring aftergrowing demands minimum 120 days. Eastern goat’s-rue generates leaves vey intensively: the mass of leaves is 55–58 % of the total mass. It produces high yields of green mass and DM due to significant shoot formation rate. In southern area of the Amur region eastern goat’s-rue provides two cuts. Depending on the growth stage it yields 29-32 t green mass ha-1 and 7-9 t DM ha-1. Seed productivity varies from 0.12 to 0.17 t ha-1. Studying eastern goat’s-rue revealed high content of protein (18-19 %), fiber (31-35 %), fat (3.7-3.9 %) and nitrogen-free extractives (NFE) – 27.7-34.9 %. High-protein fodder from eastern goat’s-rue contains 225-242 g of digestible protein per 1 feed unit. The crop provided 2.6-3.3 t of feed units and 0.6-0.7 t of digestible protein per 1 ha for one cut.
Keywords: eastern goat’s-rue, crop yield, seeding rate, harvesting time, productivity, nutritional value.
K. A. Usova, O. V. Chukhina Estimating energy efficiency of potato cultivation affected by fertilization in the Vologda region
The article deals with the three-year investigation of different fertilizer rates’ effect on potato productivity, content of nutrients, feed units, crude protein, and exchange energy. The experiment took place in 2010-2012 on sod-podzolic clay loam under dry and hot weather in the Vologda region. The object of the study was potato “Elizaveta”. The design of the field trial included unfertilized reference variant, applying minimal rate of N20P20 during planting and the background of N125-190P50K150 where fertilizer rates were calculated through balance-sheet ratios to obtain potato yield of 25 t ha-1. Mineral and organic-mineral fertilizer systems were tested. Applying minimal rates of fertilizers improved potato productivity by 14 % compared to the reference variant. Calculating fertilizer rates provided yield of 19.2–21.2 t ha-1 (77-85 % of yield planned). It also resulted in significant increase of crude protein concentration in potato tubers for three years. Fertilization had no impact on crude fat, crude fiber and crude ash content in potato tubers. Increasing fertilizer rates led to reduced concentration of nitrogen-free extractable substances. Estimating fertilizer rates increased content of exchange energy by 56-72 %, feed units — by 54-69 % and crude protein — by 73-97 % compared to the unfertilized variant.
Keywords: potato tuber, fertilizer rate, fat, fiber, crude protein, feed unit, exchange energy
A. P. Solodovnikov, E. P. Denisov, A. V. Letuchiy, F. P. ChetverikovMinimum tillage effect on maintaining chernozem fertility after phytomelioration
The paper analyzes the influence of various tillage practices on southern chernozem fertility. Cultivating grasses and reducing intensity and depth of soil preparation had good impact on soil fertility; spring wheat yield decreasing by 3.6 % only. Soil density after fourth year of grass rotation reached baseline values remaining at level optimal for spring crop development. After six years of grain crop cultivation and disk plowing soil pedality remained at 78 % exceeding the reference values by 5.3 %. Annual tillage and grass rotation reduced humus content down to baseline values within five years. Humus content under minimum tillage exceeded the reference values by 0.4 % after six years of grain crop cultivation. Spring wheat productivity surpassed the reference variant by 51.3–73.2 %, under soil overturning — by 47.6–62.3 %, in the 3rd, 4th, and 5th years of alfalfa cultivation — by 40.2–56.8 %, 48.3–57.5 % and 31.0–45.7 % respectively. After phytomelioration wheat productivity depended on tillage intensity 1.8-2.2 times less than in grain crop rotation. Wheat productivity variation coefficient made up 23.5 % after minimum tillage and 26.7 % — under conventional tillage, being 51.2 and 47.9 % for grain crop rotation.
Keywords: minimum tillage, tillage, spring wheat, phytomelioration, soil fertility.
Genetics, biotechnology, breeding and seed production
V. A. Figurin Productivity of early-maturity meadow clover varieties depending on cutting management
Creating most advanced varieties of early-maturity meadow clover (Trifolium pratense L.) gives a task of their effective usage. Optimum cuttng management of early-maturity tetraploid meadow clover variety ‘Kudesnik’ and middle-early diploid one ‘Martum’ (North-East Agricultural Research Institute), which were allowed for use, were studied in 2008–2013. Field trial was triply established in 2008, 2009, and 2010 in four replications. Cutting the first two growths in the full-bloom stage led to maximum dry matter and exchange energy yields — 7.37 t ha-1 and 73.3 GJ respectively, under two years of grasses’ usage. Minimum yields for the firs cut were detected in the early-bud stage, for the second one — in the first-bloom stage — 5.78 t ha-1 and 61.9 GJ respectively. High productivity of meadow clover was observed at the first harvesting in the first year of use. During the first growth formation from the early-bud stage till the full-bloom one, crude protein (CP) content reduced from 7.4 to 12.7 % and crude fiber (CF) accumulated from 24.4 till 29.8 %. During the second growth formation in the same stages, CP content in plants of the both clover varieties increased and CF content reduced. CP yields were similarly high in all cutting managements. Coefficient of energetic effectiveness (CEE) was high in all variants (more than 4.4); it was 5.4 when cutting both growths in the full-bloom stage.
Keywords: meadow clover, term of cutting, growth stages, dry matter, crude protein, exchange energy, coefficient of energetic effectiveness.
V. I. Antonov, N. A. Laretin, T. I. Volkova Efficiency of red clover pollination by bees
Successful development and increase of fodder production effectiveness are highly dependent on obtaining novel varieties, timely strain renovation and formation of efficient system of forage crops’ seed production. This particular study focuses on red clover as an important crop for forage production and its cultivation regarding climatic conditions, crop biological characteristics, formation of strong basis of material and technical resources, performance of required agrotechnical, ecological, organizational and economic measures. Sufficient amount of pollinating insects is the most significant factor, improving red clover seed productivity. This conclusion is based on such biological characteristics of red clover as flower formation, entomophily and cross pollination. Honey bees play an important role in this case. Conducting all agrotechnical measures and clover pollination by honey bees as well as timely harvesting of seed swards facilitate seed yield increase and obtaining additional 0.2-0.3 t ha-1 of seeds. Placing 4-5 bee colonies per 1 ha promoted maximum effectiveness of red clover pollination. The article describes aspects of efficient honey bees’ use to pollinate red clover fields in the Non-Chernozem region of Russia. It is aimed at improving red clover seed productivity. Developing red clover seed production should be closely connected with organization and development of beekeeping.
Keywords: red clover, seed, pollination, management, differentiation, economy, efficiency, profit, payback.
V. N. Lukashov, A. N. Isakov Productivity and fodder quality of festulolium cultivated on gray forest soil in the Kaluga region
Animal husbandry requires high-quality feeds. Therefore it is important to increase assortment of forage crops that yield consistently, regrow well and provide high-quality fodder. One of such crops is perennial festulolium obtained through hybridization of various Festuca species and ryegrass. The research took place on gray forest soil of Kaluga Research Institute of Agriculture in 2011–2014. It analyzed productivity and feed quality of festulolium varieties – “Aelita”, “Izumrudnyy”, “Sinta” and “Debyut”. In the first cut festulolium productivity varied between 60 and 75 % depending on the variety. All varieties showed stable reduction in yield following the first cut. For three years festulolium varieties gave 32.8–41.2 t ha-1 of green mass and 7.4–10.0 t DM ha-1 on the average. “Aelita” and “Izumrudnyy” had the best green mass (41.2 and 39.6 t ha-1) and DM productivities (9.4 and 10.0 t ha-1 respectively) over three years of investigation. Among the varieties DM content varied within 20.4– 27.8 %. All varieties were characterized by low protein concentration. “Aelita” showed the highest protein content of 9.7–14.8 % depending on the cut. Festulolium qualitative parameters in the second cut were better than in the first one.
Keywords: festulolium, intergeneric hybrid, productivity, exchange energy, crude protein, green mass, dry matter.
V. M. Kosolapov, I. A. Trofimov, L. S. Trofimova, E. P. YakovlevaScientific support for agrolandscape management in the Central Chernozem region
УДК: 502/504; 631/635; 91
Agrolandscape-ecological zoning forage lands in the Central Chernozem region (CCR) was aimed at scientific support for agrolandscape management, efficient use of natural resources, agrolandscape optimization and environmental safety. The territory of CCR is divided into 3 zones (broadleaved forest (8 %), forest steppe (75 %), and steppe (17 %)), 4 provinces and 10 districts. Zoning revealed agrolandscape critical condition, farm lands’ degradation, erosion, dehumification etc. To provide agroecosystem productivity and stability it is important to increase the proportion of pastures, hayfields and forests by 15-20 % until it reaches 50-60 %. Field crops significantly vary in their effect on humus mineralization and soil formation. The highest annual humus losses occurred due to clean fallow and row crops (1.5–2.5 t ha-1), the medium ones – after grain crops and annual grasses (0.4–1 t ha-1). Perennial grasses being the main soil formers enhance humus content by 0.3-0.6 t ha-1 annually. In many regions of CCR favorable conditions for soil formation are generated by perennial grasses only for 2-3 % of cultivated areas while 97-98 % of the lands undergo significant systematic decrease of soil fertility. As a result of unbalanced pattern of arable lands total humus losses greatly exceed humus accumulation.
Keywords: agrolandscape-ecological zoning, the Central Chernozem region, efficient use of natural resources, agrolandscape optimization, natural forage land, pattern of the arable areas, crop rotation, perennial grass