Economics, management, organization and law in forage production
O. T. Andreeva, N. G. Pilipenko, L. P. Sidorova, N. Yu. KharchenkoBrief history of Fodder Production development in the Trans-Baikal Territory
The paper deals with the brief history of Fodder production development in the Trans-Baikal Territory. It lists the number of research papers of scientists and experts of scientific agricultural institutions of this region from 1926 till 2015. It shows the historical value of Fodder production for social and economical development as well as developing productive forces of the Trans- Baikal Territory in general. Paper gives the competitive analysis of this sphere and presents the tendency of its development from 1920 to these days. Huge task-oriented work of scientists and experts of the Trans-Baikal Territory led to obtaining unique varieties of perennial legume and gramineous grasses and grain crops. They developed techniques of developing and cultivating pastures for cattle and sheep, systems of summer and winter pastures’ organization, technological plans for production of silage, haylage, grain haylage and grass flour including high-protein crops into multicomponent mixtures. They also developed adaptive technologies for cultivating cole crops, maze, root crops and Polygonum divaricatun for fodder and seed production. Scientists developed technologies of winter pasture cultivation by sowing oat, mixtures of oat and pea, spring rapeseed and oil radish in summer which exceed natural lands in content of feed units and exchange energy.
Keywords: research result, forage production, forage crop, seed production, plant breeding, agrotechnology, productivity.
V. N. Surovtsev, E. D. Dunyasheva The role, importance and effectiveness of perennial grasses in the Leningrad region
The paper analyzes tendency for seed production development as well as economical efficacy of perennial grasses’ seed production in the Leningrad region and its influence on milk production efficiency. Poor regional seed market is the main problem for developing seed production. Demand for seeds of perennial grasses grows in the region while amount of products stays at the same level. Level of region seed self-sufficiency reduced from 2011 to 2015 by 8.5 percentage points. Prices for seed realization in 2015 dropped by 2.6 % in certified farms compared to 2012 while expenses grew by 75.2 % leading to production loss. However seed production in farms provides increase in milk production efficacy. Increasing the area of reseeding and cultivating perennial grasses up to four years lead to production and fodder quality enhancement which is a base of high economical results in dairy farming. Payback from dairy farming in 2015 exceeded average regional values by 7 percentage points and income for 1 cow — by 20.2 thousand rubles. It is important to have a support from the government to be able to solve some problems in import substitution.
Keywords: fodder quality, perennial grasses, seed production, payback from seed production, state support of seed production, milk payback.
Grassland science and management
D. M. Teberdiev, M. A. Shchannikova Grass mixtures for grassland development.
Grassland development is one of the ways for reducing production cost. The paper deals with selecting grass mixtures for pasture development in the Kirov region. Low field germination depends on weather. Combination of perennial ryegrass and bluegrass showed higher germination (19 %) than mixture of two gramineous and two legumes. Productivity of the reference variant for two years made up on average 1.79 t DM ha-1 being lower than for all other variants. Legume-gramineous mixture with two clover types had maximum productivity of 4.29 t ha-1. Reference variant gave minimum content of exchange energy (19.0 GJ ha-1 (1.5 thousand of feed units ha-1)) while legume-gramineous combination provided the maximum one — 43.4 GJ ha-1 (3.6 thousand of feed units ha-1)). Crude protein content in 2014 varied within 10-14.1 % of DM in gramineous swards which were harvested at heading time and used for haylage preparation. In 2015 crude protein and crude fiber contents met the values of zootechnical standards in swards harvested at tillering time. Forage made from legume-gramineous swards showed high crude protein content: 15.3–19.0 % — in 2014 and 19.2–22.7 % — in 2015. Legume-gramineous swards are more economically effective since they substitute mineral nitrogen by the biological one.
Keywords: cultivated grassland, grass mixture, field germination, productivity, fodder quality.
Crop production and arable farming
Kh. I. Maksimova, V. S. Nikolaeva, A. N. Sivtseva Sunflower and oats productivities in Yakutia
Central Yakutia is characterized by worm sunny weather, fast increase in average daily temperatures in spring and high solar radiation activity which allow successful cultivation of forage crops with short growing season. The paper deals with testing sunflower (“Kulundinets”) and oats (“Pokrovskiy-9”) productivities for silage production in cryolithic zone. The experiment took place in 2009-2014 on cryogenic meadow-chernozem soils of “Moydokh” in the Khangalassky region. Field trial area amounted to 50 m2 and included three replications. Mineral fertilization by N60P60K60 occurred before sowing. Seeding rate for sunflower was 300-400 thous. germinated seeds per 1 ha, for oats — 4 million. The experiment measured productivity, nutritional value and bioenergetic parameters of forage crops to be used for silage and green fodder in cryolithic zone. Sunflower dry mass productivity reached 10.1 t ha-1, exchange energy –94.1 GJ ha-1, feed units — 7.08 t ha-1, digestible protein — 1.05 t ha-1. Green mass productivity varied insignificantly year-wise. Oats productivity made up 16.2 t ha-1 of green mass, for sunflower value being 44.2 t ha-1 of green mass. “Kulundinets” (energy coefficient — 4.84) exceeded “Pokrovskiy-9” in productivity, digestible protein content (103.4 kg per 1 DM kg) by 2.0-2.5 times.
Keywords: sunflower, “Kulundinets”, oats, “Pokrovskiy-9”, forage crop, productivity, food value, agroenergy assessment.
S. I. Kokonov, A. A. Nikitin, V. Z. Latfullin, E. M. KislyakovaDeveloping highproductive agrocenoses of sudan grass (Sorghum sudanense L.) in the Udmurt Republic
УДК: 633.282 (470.51)
Stable fodder resources are the background for maintaining and increasing livestock number and improving its productivity. Sudan grass is a good resource for energy-rich fodder production in a process of increasing the number of varieties which are adapted to regional climatic conditions. The experiment took place on sod-podzolic soil with the average content of loam in 2011-2015. It analyzed the performance of Sudan grass “Chishminskaya rannyaya” as affected by time, sowing depth and methods, seeding rate, cultivation techniques as well as its combination with grain legume crops and harvesting time. The highest Sudan grass productivity of 3.73–5.29 t DM ha-1 was achieved when the crop was sown in rows on 5th of June at the depth of 5-6 cm under seeding rate of 3.5 million germinated seeds per 1 ha. Complex of cultivation techniques, including harrowing, fertilization by nitrogen and soil rolling, provided the highest yield of Sudan grass — 5.37 t ha-1. In order to increase crop forage productivity Sudan grass should be sown in combination with grain legume crops. The best productivity of 8.26 t DM ha-1 occurred when mixture of Sudan grass and pea was harvested in the period of milky stage.
Keywords: Sudan grass, fodder productivity, dry matter, cultivation technology.
Genetics, biotechnology, breeding and seed production
V. M. Kosolapov, Z. Sh. Shamsutdinov, Yu. M. Piskovatskii, M. Yu. Novoselov, Yu. S. Tyurin The basic species and varieties of fodder crops: results of scientific activity of the Central Breeding center
Staff of the Breeding Center of the All-Russian Williams Fodder Research Institute has elaborated a monograph “The basic species and varieties of fodder crops: results of scientific activity of the Central Breeding center” and published it in the publishing company “Nauka” in 2015; ISBN 978-5-02-039110-9. The monograph includes scientific materials about long-term studies in breeding and seed production of the main fodder crops, their national economic significance, and biological peculiarities. It also contains economical and biological traits of created varieties, scientific materials about varietal seed production and seed science of fodder crops. Ways of genepool forming, resistance increasing, nitrogen-fixing capacity and other development aspects of fodder plants are reflected in the monograph. A lot attention was paid to elaboration and improving breeding methods. For perennial leguminous and gramineous grasses, the following methods are elaborated: experimental polyploidy, chemical mutagenesis, gametic breeding, interspecific hybridization, phytocenotic, edaphic, and symbiotic breeding. Most of these are successfully used for plant breeding in research institutes of Russia and CIS countries. A biogeoceonotic approach to a fodder crops breeding strategy as an adaptive breeding system was proved at the end of the monograph. Unlike traditional breeding aimed to increase a productivity potential of plants, it focused on using every possible source between plants, useful microorganisms, mycorrhizal fungies, and creating a system of geographical and ecological derived varieties of fodder crops with high feed and seed production at a low energy cost. The monograph is useful for plant breeders, agronomists, managers and specialists of agriculture, and for students of agronomy departments of education institutions.
Keywords: species, variety, fodder crop, genepool, breeding, biotechnology, arid plants.
I. A. Loshkomoynikov, G. N. Kuznetsova, R. S. Polyakova Results of rapeseed and field mustard breeding in the south forest-steppe of the West Siberia
Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) and field mustard (Brassica campestris L.) are valuable spring cole crops and important feed and oil sources. In the modern crop farming, using new varieties provides an important contribution in the increasing of yield and oil content in seeds. For the long-term experiment (1987–2015), six varieties of spring rapeseed and three — of spring field mustard were created by the Siberian Experimental Station of the All-Russian Research Institute of Oil Crops. They were included in the State Register of breeding achievements allowed for use. Different parent material was created by the method of singlefamily selection, and then the high-oiled varieties with low content of erucic acid and glucosinolates were bred: rapeseed ‘Radikal’, ‘Yubileyny’, ‘Rusich’, ‘Start’, ‘Kupol’, ‘Granit’, and field mustard ‘Iskra’, ‘Novinka’, ‘Luchistaya’. These varieties are adapted to the conditions of the West Siberian forest-steppe. New varieties of rapeseed ‘55 region’ and field mustard ‘Pobeda’ are described. Their main benefits are high productivity, early ripening, and low content of glucosinolates in seeds. For three years of competitive varietal trial, the seed yield of rapeseed ‘55 region’ averaged to 2.59 t ha-1 (it exceeded the standard ‘Start’ by 0.26 t ha-1); of field mustard ‘Pobeda’ — 1.73 t ha-1 (it exceeded the standard ‘Luchistaya’ by 0.20 t ha-1). These varieties were submitted to a state varietal trial in 2015. Using the new varieties of rapeseed and field mustard allows to increase the economical efficiency of oil crops’ cultivation.
Keywords: spring rapeseed, spring field mustard, variety, productivity, oil content, glucosinolates, erucic acid.
O. A. Dakhno, N. N. Ivashchenko, M. B. Kochneva Breeding perennial gramineous grasses in the Kamchatka region
For cultivation in the Kamchatka region, perennial gramineous grasses are the most suitable by their biological peculiarities and adaptability. Different species of grasses were introduced, and their agrobiologies were studied; then they were included in a breeding process. A variety model contained high winter hardiness, feed and seed productivity, relevance for mowing and grazing. The main breeding method for grasses was creating synthetic population by polycrossing. The variety of common timothy ‘Vita 1’ shows flexibility, its dry matter yield varied within 5.03 and 8.9 t ha-1 in different regions. The cock’s-foot variety ‘Struta’ features winter hardiness and high seed productivity, it was included in the State Register of Breeding Achievements in 2012. The meadow fescue variety ‘Severyanka 6’ shows high adaptability to soil and climatic conditions of the region; its seeds mature in the middle of September. The reed canary grass variety ‘Antares’ can produce two yields of hay per growing season; its regrow capacity is 42.3 %. Its dry matter yield was 5.78 t ha-1 for two mowings. Besides economic traits, a tendency to apomixis was considered in the meadow grass collection. Selected meadow grass variety No. 379 exceeded the standard in feed productivity by 18.1 %. It features high seed productivity and germination capacity, good decorative properties, and it prones to longevity. The varieties of meadow fescue ‘Severyanka 6’ and reed canary grass ‘Antares’ are at the State variety trial; the meadow grass variety No. 379 is being prepared for State variety trial.
Keywords: plant breeding, variety, common timothy, meadow fescue, cock’s-foot, reed canary grass, meadow grass.
V. M. Kosolapov, I. A. Trofimov Forage production in Siberia
УДК: 631/635; 502/504
N. I. Kashevarov and V. F. Reznikov published a new book “Forage production optimization in Siberia” in Siberian Forage Research Institute. The book contains the following sections: 1. Analyzing fodder resources’ conditions and potential for agricultural enterprises in the Siberian Federal District (SFD); 2. Current requirements to fodder resources of agricultural facility; 3. Providing balanced fodder resources; 4. Optimization of grain fodder production and utilization; 5. Controlling protein deficit; 6. Oil-plant production; 7. Economical issues in fodder production. Nowadays the main trend in Siberian agroindustrial complex is developing forage resources which are efficient for Animal Husbandry in quantity, composition, quality and price. Achieving this goal allows: optimization of field composition and production; increasing livestock productivity and product quality; reduction in costs and cost prices for livestock products; competitiveness of domestic dairy and meat products; import substitution without increase in price and decrease in purchasing capacity. Cultivation of unused lands and increasing forage crops’ proportion improve fodder resources’ condition significantly. Sufficient transformation of fodder resources requires fodder production intensification, developing novel cultivation and production techniques, improving field composition, using pesticides and fertilizers, land reclamation etc. It is necessary to increase field area up to 5000 thous. ha.
Keywords: Russia, Siberia, fodder production, fodder resources, grain fodder, perennial grasses, protein, oil-plant, economy.