Economics, management, organization and law in forage production
T. I. Lobacheva Enhancing forage production efficiency on the basis of economic analysis
Forages make up to 35–70 % of the animal products’ prime cost. Rational organization and increase in the efficacy of forage production lead to reducing production costs. Multichoice possibilities of using productive resources require developing an economic mathematical model of forage production. The fodder production system includes three subsystems of field, grassland and auxiliary industrial production. Modifying the livestock population indices, diets, crop productivity, etc. it is possible to obtain a set of problem solutions reflecting the conditions of fodders’ production. Economic mathematical model is a system of suggestions describing the interrelations and dependencies of the variables and limitations of the problem. On the basis of the chosen criteria of maximal feed supply the problem of forage production structure optimization is presented, its solution leading to higher efficacy of this industrial branch. The total of homemade feeds should approximate maximal amount, at the same time the quantity of purchased feeds should be as small as possible. The following conditions should be observed: the demands of present livestock population should be fully satisfied by the forage income; land area limitations are to be considered together with the sown area structure and livestock numbers. Green conveyor is simulated: in summer monthly livestock demands should be satisfied with green mass of annual and perennial grasses and pastures. The pastoral systems’ potential is most efficiently used when considering the grazing schedule. The scheme of the model is presented in the article. Recommendations are given on crop rota- tion management such as introducing the most high-yielding multipurpose crops, using catch crops and resowing with accurate planning the sown area structure. The benefit is achieved due to a better organization of fodder production.
Keywords: forage production, system’s analysis, optimizing, model, model matrix, efficacy.
Grassland science and management
M. Yu. Satarov The optimal cutting regime for alfalfa and smooth brome grass mixture
УДК: 631.55:633.3 (470.57
The article contains the results of a three-year research on the influence of different harvesting time on the productivity of grass mixture with alfalfa and smooth brome grass. The optimal periods for hay cutting for intensive twofold use of perennial grasses have been specified. It has been found that mowing the grass mixture with alfalfa and smooth brome grass during budding and the pre- blooming period allows obtaining 4.73 tons of hay and 48.18 GJ of exchange energy from 1 hectare.
Keywords: alfalfa and smooth brome grass mixture, cutting regime, hay, feed value, economic and energy efficiency.
M. Sh. Tagirov, G. F. Sharipova Influence of mineral fertilizers on alfalfa productivity
Green mass yield is formed as a result of the swards’ photosynthetic activity which is advised to be estimated not only by the leaf surface area but by the chlorophyll concentration in all the green plant parts as well. In this connection the aim of the experiment was to study the specifics of sward yield formation via calculating the net photosynthesis productivity (NPP) as dependent on the fertilization background, plant development stage and weather conditions of the season. Bastard alfalfa (Medicago × varia) swards of the ‘Sarga’ variety were studied since the third year of use. During the following three years (2008–2010) the experiment was conducted on unfertilized crops and under the application of N48P48K48. The measurements were taken at the following stages of plant development: shooting and beginning of bud formation, budding, beginning of fl owering, full bloom, and beginning of pod formation. Weather conditions of 2008 were favourable and they allowed obtaining the green mass yield of 24.4–27.3 tons ha-1 without fertilization. Fertilizing the swards added 9 tons ha-1. The vegeta tion period of 2009 featured unregularly precipitation. The maximal green mass yield was obtained in the beginning of pod formation making 16.9 и 24.8 tons ha-1 for the two nutritive conditions respectively. The vegeta- tion season of 2010 was extremely dry, that aff ected alfalfa productivity. The losses reached 75 % of the 2008 yield. Dry mass of the fertilized swards exceeded the check variant 20.0 tons ha-1 during the experimental years on average. The highest A and B protein content in both nutrition conditions was marked during the shooting and the beginning of budding. Chlorophyll B content in reproductive shoots increases to the blooming stage; in the leaves it declines to the end of vegetation. Application of minerals fertilizers increased the NPP index by 43.3 %. It was the highest during bud formation; a certain increase of NPP was observed during fruitage following abundant precipitation in the end of vegetation. Generally applying mineral fertilization of N48P48K48 had a positive eff ect on plant photosynthetic activity, raised the NPP index, however moisture supply played an important role.
Keywords: alfalfa, mineral nutrition, weather conditions, net photosynthesis productivity.
S. P. Goloborodko, G. V. Sakhno, E. A. Poginayko Forage production systems in the southern steppe of Ukraine: current state and prospects
УДК: 636.085/. 087
To increase the amounts of forage production on small and large-scale farms in the southern steppe of Ukraine it is necessary to organize and implement optimized forage production systems which provide efficient development and profitability of animal husbandry and the overall farming.
Keywords: animal husbandry, forage system, green conveyor, hay, haylage, silage, alfalfa, corn, forage quality, exchange energy, energy efficiency ratio.
Crop_production and arable farming
N. I. Buyankin, А. Г. Krasnoperov Scientific bases of resource-saving production of forages in the mixed crops of winter and summer bean and cereal cultures
The problem of providing the animal husbandry with protein balanced feeds is still incompletely solved in Russia. Forage use of mixed crops of winter and spring legumes and cereals is a simple solution, and an economically effec tive and ecologically safe one. Lupine/cereal and vetch/cereal combinations are suitable for establishing mixed crops due to the high forage and environment-improving properties of lupine and vetch. Their large-scale practi- cal implementation requires optimal cultivar and mixture ratio choice. In 2009–2013 the productivity of vetch, lupine and cereals mixtures was studied in the conditions of the Kaliningrad region at diff erent crops’ and varieties’ combination, the optimal seeding rates of legumes and cereals were calculated. Green mass yields in the mixed crops were 1.5-2.0 times higher than those of single crops. The highest yield of 77.63 tons ha-1 was obtained from winter triticale sown with winter vetch. The highest dry ma
Keywords: single-species, mixed crop, legume and cereal crops, herbicideless technology of forage production.
S. N. Shapsovich, A. P. Batudaev, N. B. Mardvaev Productivity of the forage crop rotation link with root crops and annual grasses in the dry steppe zone of Buryatia
УДК: 631.582/587: 633.2/.
The results of studying the productivity of a crop rotation are presented for the fodder root crops and potato, as well as for oats and mixed crops. High yields were recorded for the root crop links.
Keywords: root crops, potato, oats, mixed crops, productivity.
V. N. Fomin, S. I. Spichkov, M. M. Nafikov, A. A. Zamaidinov Influence of primary tillage methods, fertilizers and plant protection agents on barley productivity and grain quality
Barley is an important forage grain crop for Russian agriculture second to wheat in terms of croppage. However the efficiency of its cultivation is limited by low productivity and grain quality of the crop. Agricultural technique development is required. In 2010-2013 the eff ect of the primary tillage methods (А), mineral fertilizers (B) and plant protection agents (С) on ‘Vakula’ barley cultivar’s productivity and grain quality were studied on the gray forest soil in the conditions of the Middle Volga. The eff ects of mouldboard plowing, subsurface loosening and blade plowing were compared. Mineral fertilization rates were calculated for each tillage method for the expected grain productivity of 4.0 tons ha-1. Four seed disinfectants were tested. For the three years on average the best barley yield of 3.95 tons ha-1 was obtained at blade plow tillage, applying N51P26K85 and using “Stinger” seed disinfectant. This combination has also provided the best grain quality indices: 13.8 % protein content, 656 g l-1 grain unit, 9.62 % hoodness and 1000 grains’ weight of 41,8 g. It was found that if more than 15 % seeds are diseased a chemical disinfectant should be applied for seed incrustation; if only 10-12 % of the seeds are aff ected biological means of plant protection are sufficient.
Keywords: common barley, ‘Vakula’ cultivar, primary tillage, fertilizer, pesticides, productivity, grain quality, protein, feed units yield.
A. I. Volkov, N. A. Kirillov, L. N. Prokhorova Productivity of early-ripe maize hybrids in Chuvashia
The results of comparative evaluation of the early-ripening maize hybrids’ grain yiel d are presented for the agricultural and climatic conditions of Chuvashia. The maximal yield of 5.96 tons ha-1 was formed by ‘NK Gitago’ hybrid.
Keywords: maize, hybrid, productivity.
Genetics, biotechnology, breeding and seed production
M. P. Chupina Productivity and seed quality of compass weed (silphium perfoliatum l.) at different transplanting dates
The results of studying the productivity and seed quality of compass weed (Silphium perfoliatum L.) are presented for the first and the subsequent years after transplanting it on diff erent dates. It is found that planting the crop between May, 5 and 15 allows it to form a quality seed yield of 28-35 kg ha-1 in the first year, and 382-435 kg ha-1 in the subsequent ones.
Keywords: compass weed (Silphium perfoliatum L.), transplant, planting dates, seeds, productivity.
V. M Kosolapov, I. A. Trofimov, L. S. Trofimova Multifunctional forage production in agriculture, ecology and rational nature management
УДК: 631; 633.2; 574.4; 5
The All-Russian Williams Fodder Research Institute has prepared and published a new book “Forage production in agriculture, ecology and rational nature management: theory and practice”. The great importance of forage produc-tion for agriculture, ecology and environmen¬tal management is shown. The benefits of fod¬der production for agriculture development are plentiful. Based largely on exploiting the natural processes and renewable resources, it is a very profitable sector of economy that integrates all other branches of agriculture bounding them into a single system. Fodder production provides animal husbandry with feeds; it enhances the efficacy of crop production and enriches soil fertility, preserving the landscapes for farming. It makes possible effective land agricultural management together with rational use of natural resources and environment protection, maintaining the necessary balance in the economy of different agricultural branches. Development of fodder pro¬duction is the strategic direction in improving adaptability and sustainability of agriculture, crop production, arable farming and animal husbandry enhancement, as well as rational nature management and environment protection.
Keywords: crop production, natural кормовые угодья, forage crops, grassland farming, field crop production, breeding, seed production, harvesting, storage, using feeds.