General questions of forage production
E. L. Kharitonov Comparing the methods of calculating energy value of the main fodders
A comparative analysis of nutritional value of the main feeds is given in the article along with the up-to-date requirements to their quality. The criteria for a more adequate assessment of fodder quality are determined. Ash, ammonia and starch content should be under strict control, and organic matter digestibility should be taken into account. New All-Russian State Standards (“GOST”’s) on hay, haylage and silage, considering these requirements, are currently under advisement.
Keywords: fodder, nutrition value assessment, feed quality requirements.
D. Kozlov The industry sector event
Meadow and field forage production
T. N. Soboleva, I. V. Serebrova Productivity of herbages with eastern goat’s-rue and bird’s-foot trefoil in the pastures of the European North of Russia
The results of a three-year study (2011–2013) are presented, the infl uence of legume grasses on the productivity and nutritive value of pasture plant communities was assessed during them. In the conditions of the fi eld experiment herbage mixtures were studied including the following legumes: eastern goat’s-rue ‘Krivich’, bird’s-foot trefoil ‘Solnyshko’, red clover ‘Karmin’, and the gramineous compounds like timothy ‘Vologodskaya mestnaya’ and meadow fescue ‘Sverdlovskaya 37’. Traditional legume-grass mixture with red clover cultivar ‘Karmin’ and white clover ‘Belogorsky’. The four-component legume-grass mixture on the basis of red clover cultivar ‘Karmin’ and eastern goat’s-rue ‘Krivich’ together with fescue and timothy was found to be the most high-yielding. It is characterized by a good share of the legumes (43.3 %), an increased yield of digestible protein (525 kg ha-1) and high nitrogen fi xing ability (82 kg ha-1). Analyzing the obtained data showed that the chemical properties and nutri- tive value of the legume-grass herbages depended on their boranical composition, and those of the grass ones were regulated by the mineral fertilization rates applied. An increase of the legume components’ share led to an increment in the crude protein content and smaller quantities of fi ber as a rule. Legume-grass swards exceeded the grass ones in crude protein content and exchange energy concentration by 2.8-4.8 % and 3-5 % respectively.
Keywords: eastern goat’s-rue, bird’s-foot trefoil, legume grass, pasture plant communities, productivity, nutritional value.
V. V. Dyachenko, O. V. Postevaya Productivity and feeding value of Lolium multiflorum Lam. var. westerwoldicum Wittm. at different levels of ground fertilization in the Bryansk region
Annual ryegrass is a high-yielding forage crop with good nutritive value of the fodders harvested, which is suitable for intensive cutting and grazing on arable lands in the regions of sufficient precipitation. The peculiarities of its root system development and specific metabolic processes in the plants provide macro- and micronutrient uptake from low-accessible soil compounds, and as a result they have a higher intensity of the production processes compared to other annual grasses. In 2011-2013 a research into the influence of mineral nutrition on the productivity and feed value of annual ryegrass was conducted in the experimental fields of Bryansk State Agrarian Academy. It was shown that annual ryegrass can give three cuts in the Bryansk region, and four cuts in certain years. More than a half of the yearly green mass yield is harvested in the first cut. It is found that application of complex fertilizers only does not have an adequate effect, while keeping to moderate complex ground fertilization and proportioned nitrogen dressing increases the productivity significantly. Thus, on the background of N60P60K60 and N30+N30 average productivity during the experimental period amounted to 48 t ha-1; on the background of N60P60K60 and N30+N30+N30 it exceeded 58 t ha-1 (the check variant productivity being 21 t ha-1). Fertilization has also increased crude protein content up to 11.5-13.5 % compared to 10 % of the check variant. On basis of the experimental results, moderate complex fertilization (N60P60K60) and nitrogen dressing (N30) during the tillering period and after the first two harvests is to be recommended as the optimal plant nutrition regime.
Keywords: annual ryegrass, mineral fertilizers, productivity, forage value.
Selection and seed growing of fodder crops
V. V. Osipova Features of pollination in the sickle alfalfa cenosis in the conditions of the cryolithic zone
Alfalfa seed productivity is directly dependent on the pollination rate; therefore the actual yield is considerably lower than potential. The influence of seeding rates and row spacing on the number of pollinators is studied together with their effect on fruit formation and finally on the seed yield. The fi eld experiments were carried out in two soil and climate zones of Yakutia: in the Lena district (the Olyokma region) and the Vilyuidistrict (the Nyurbinsk region). The tested variety of sickle alfalfa was ‘Yakutskaya zheltaya’. Since the budding stage the number of pollinated fl owers was marked and since the pod formation the number of fruits dropped was recorded. It is found that regardless of sward density most of the alfalfa flowers (about 70 %) break up after being visited by the bees. The regional differences are insignifi cant. The maximal alfalfa seed yield is obtained at the seeding rate of 1 kg ha-1 and row spacing of 45 cm. Alfalfa seed productivity also depends on the climatic conditions of cultivation.
Keywords: alfalfa, pollination rate, agricultural practices, fruit formation, seed yield
A. P. Eryashev, A. G. Kataev, P. A. Eryashev The influence of plant protection agents and the biological preparation “Albit” on the seed yield of eastern goat’srue (Galega orientalis Lam.)
УДК: 633:631. 559:632.95
The article presents results of studying the effect of plant protection agents and the biological preparation “Albit” on the growth, development and seed yield of eastern goat’s-rue (Galega orientalis Lam.) in Mordovia. It is proved that maximal plant height was provided by applying “Albit” at the stage of budding without any pesticide use as well as during the spring regrowth under its double application combined with plant protection agents. The highest seed yield was reached by joint application of pesticides and growth stimulator during the spring regrowth, and in the budding stage without any plant protection agents.
Keywords: eastern goat’s-rue, Galega orientalis Lam., plant protection agents, “Albit”, plant height, bean length, generative shoots, beannumber andseed number per bean, 1000 seeds’ mass, seed yield.
Regional forage production
Ya. Z. Kaipov, V. M. Shiriyev, M. R. Abdullin Increasing the productive longevity of the sown hayfields in the steppe zone of Bashkortostan
The article analyses the outcomes of the first three years of studying the efficacy of agricultural methods targeted at increasing the productive longevity of the sown hayfields of the steppe zone. The results point at the possibility of improving the swards by fertilizing, sod disking, and overgrassing with leguminous species even in the conditions of the steppe zone with its recurrent droughts.
Keywords: steppe zone, hayfields, longevity, fertilizer, disking, reseeding grass.
100 years of service to agrarian science
V. M. Lukomets, V. L. Makhonin Soybean cultivation in rice crop rotations of the Kuban as a large reserve of fodder protein supply
From the agronomic, ecologic and economic points of view, it is advisable to cultivate soybean in the rice crop rotations of the Krasnodar region, considering the fact that soybean yield potential here is 3.0–4.0 t ha-1. Seed inoculation with the certified nodule bacteria preparations is the most efficient agricultural practice under these conditions. These preparations contribute to the increase of protein productivity of the crops by more than 1.5 times, and increase the soybean value in crop rotation as a soil fertility improver.
Keywords: soybean, rice crop rotation, inoculation, nodule bacteria preparations, protein and oil productivity.
B. N. Nasiev Selecting single and mixed forage crops for adaptive farming in West Kazakhstan
УДК: 633.26/29 (574.1)
Currently agriculture is facing the task of providing livestock with complete feed. Supplying animal husbandry with fodders rich in protein is impossible without diversification of the fodder production and applying innovative methods of fodder crops’ management. One of the ways to increase the efficacy of field crop production in West Kazakhstan is cultivating the high-yielding fodder species in single and mixed crops. As a result of the conducted research activities the data allowing assessing the fodder crops’ productivity in single and mixed crops is obtained for the conditions of the dry steppe of West Kazakhstan. These are to be used for the innovative technologies of fodder protein production.
Keywords: diversification, single crops, mixed agrophytocenosis, productivity, photosynthetic activity, forage crops.
V. M. Kosolapov, I. A. Trofimov, L. S. Trofimova An important contribution to the methodological basics of fodder production: the Encyclopedic Glossary
УДК: 577.4; 633.2
The 2nd revised and enlarged edition of the Encyclopedic Glossary on forage production was developed and published at the All-Russian Williams Fodder Research Institute. The glossary contains about 2 000 terms on forage production and related disciplines (biology, ecology, geography, environmental management, environment protection).
Keywords: crop production, forage production, forages, agriculture, ecology, environmental management.