Economics, management, organization and law in forage production
S. A. Belchenko, A. V. Dronov, V. E. Torikov, I. N. Belous Promising trends in food production development in the Bryansk region
Bryansk Agroindustrial Complex showed positive developmental dynamics in 2015. Increase in agricultural production in prices of 01.01.2016 made up 116 % compared to the level of 2014. The cost of produced goods was 74.8 billion rubles. On 01.01.2016 all farms had 422.1 thousand heads of cattle. The number of pigs in all categories amounted to 292.6 thousand heads, being 237.3 thousand heads in the agricultural enterprises. Poultry population increased by 13 % in farms up to 13.6 million heads. According to this parameter the Bryansk region ranks second in the Central Federal District and seventh in the Russian Federation. Developing animal husbandry requires radical improvement of forage resources, production increase and fodder quality enhancement as well as fodder rational and effective use. Reducing expenses in fodder production is a key to increasing economical effectiveness both in animal husbandry and agricultural production. Main attention is paid to grass fodder. Agricultural enterprises successfully apply methods developed in Bryansk State Agrarian University. Soil and climatic conditions are very good for legume-grass swards. Newly developed pastures form perennial highly productive agrocenosis. Its components grow fast and complement each other in fodder value allowing sward use 45-60 days after sowing.
Keywords: agroindustrial complex, animal husbandry, fodder production, grain crop, potato production, budget, government support, financing, agroholding, efficacy.
Grassland science and management
E. P. Knyazeva, V. V. Kolomeychenko, V. K. Kuznetsov Current conditions of natural forage lands under nuclear pollution in the Central Russian Upland
Investigation of two ravine systems (800 ha) took place in 2011-2013; simplificated and fundamental improvement being conducted 35-40 years ago. The research collected data on long-term swards’ productivity, botanical and biochemical composition, agrochemical soil characteristics and extent of nuclear pollution of soil and plants under various slope exposition and ratio. The long term swards of ravine systems were established to have a potential to be used as a source of complete feeds which are balanced in protein. Sward productivity exceeded 3.5 t ha-1 of air-dry matter being especially good at the bottom of ravine. Smooth brome (Bromopsis inerius L.) was one of the best species improving this type of lands. Its percentage in swards made up 70-98 % after more than 35 years. All the gramineous were very sensitive to mineral fertilization. Applying N45–60 in early spring and N30–45 after a first cut could increase productivity by 2-3 times as well as improve sward botanical and biochemical composition. 137Сs content in air-dried matter did not exceed the Standard for hay (400 Bq kg-1) on eluviated soils. The data proved the possibility of obtaining good quality production.
Keywords: natural forage land, slope land, simplificated and fundamental soil improvement, botanical and biochemical composition, agrochemical soil characteristics, nuclear pollution.
D. S. Dzybov, V. V. Kulintsev Ecological characteristics of steppe pastures of the Western Caspian Sea region and recovery of their fodder potential
Pasture management optimization in the steppe regions includes the number of techniques: 1) flora system analysis; 2) determining sward degradation level; 3) specification of wild seed plants — seed donors for valuable forage crops and their natural mixtures; 4) fast recovery of analogs of original steppe of different longevity. Moistening level for semi-deserts of the Western Caspian Sea region varies within 27-30 (high moisture deficit), for dry steppe — 35–39, for the multicomponent one — 42- 43, for meadow steppe (the most humid one) — 48-51. Agropyron desertorum, Agropyron pectinatum, Koeleria cristata, Stipa pennata, Stipa pulcherrima, Stipa ucrainica, Medicago caerulea, Kochia prostrate etc., perform as indicators for original (the standard) steppe. Secondary degraded steppes contain over 30 poisonous weeds. Most of them are dominant plants; their occurrence varies within 29-81 %. Variability of secondary vegetation prevents natural reintroduction of primary plants, its demutation. In this case an alternative fast technique of steppe recovering was developed — agrosteppe method. It is based on removing weeds by natural competition with steppe grass mixtures. Using this method allows agrosteppe restoration within 2-3 years. Pasture productivity reaches 3-7 t of DM; phytomass palatability making up to 85-90 %. Ecologically clean grazing fodder, hay and animal husbandry production have low costs.
Keywords: agrosteppe, recovery, competition, grazing fodder, moistening level, ecological niche.
Crop production and arable farming
N. G. Pilipenko, O. T. Andreeva Forage crops’ biomass and productivity as affected by fertilization on meadow chernozem in the Eastern Transbaikal
The paper describes the effect of different rates of mineral and organo-mineral fertilization on forage crop productivity in crop rotation on deeply-freezing meadow chernozem (fallow-turnips-mixture of maize and sunflower-spring rapeseed-mixture of pea and oat). Plant height before harvesting for fertilized variants significantly exceeded the one for unfertilized plants: maze — by 9-40 cm, sunflower — by 6-25 cm, spring rapeseed — by 10-26 cm, pea — by 3-10 cm, oat — by 9-17 cm. Single fertilizer rate (N120Р90К90 and manure (40 t ha-1) + N120Р90К90) showed worse results on DM yield than the double one — by 2.0–3.1 and 16.1–34.2 % respectively. Depending on fertilizer rates average annual yield of feed units made up 18.7, 20.2, 20.2, 21.7 t; crude protein –2.07, 2.29, 2.37, 2.69 t (for the reference variants being 14.3 and 1.43 t respectively). Applying manure (80 t ha-1) and N240Р180К180 provided the maximum yield of feed units — 21.7 and 2.69 t respectively. N120Р90К90 applied for one crop rotation was paid back by 14.6 kg of feed units per 1 kg of active ingredient. Raised fertilizer rates increased additional yield of feed units up to 5.9-7.4 t but decreased the fertilizer payback down to 9.8-3.4 kg per1 kg of active ingredient.
Keywords: forage crop, fertilizer, height, plant biomass, productivity, crop rotation productivity, fertilizer payback.
V. I. Zhuzhukin, A. Yu. Garshin Efficacy of sorghum cultivation under drought conditions of the Volga region
The paper deals with data on long-term experiment of economically important traits of various sorghum varieties.: plant height reached 154.2-204.5 cm, maximum leaf area — 162.2-315.1 cm2, tilling capacity — 1.3-1.7 pcs., head length — 19.1-31.2 cm, grain number per head — 377.5-1062.8 pcs., thousand grain weight — 20.5-30.0 g, stem yield — 15.8-23.2 t ha-1, biomass productivity — 16.8-31.9 t ha-1. Sorghum can be used for syrup and molasses production due to its high productivity and sugar presence in stem juice. Varieties with high amount of leaves are good for fodder production: green forage, ensiling, regulating carbohydrate and fat metabolism as well as sugar-protein and starch-sugar ratios. Amount of exchange energy of sorghum biomass made up 2.4-2.6 MJ kg-1. Gross energy content was revealed to vary within 127.4-223.1 GJ ha-1. Energy efficiency ratio of sorghum cultivation technology amounted to 5.5–8.9 for biomass and 1.5–4.1 — for grain. Sorghum variety trial allowed revealing the most promising varieties and lines which were characterized by the highest energy efficiency ratio: “Flagman” (8.9), “k-592” (8.3), “k-669” (7.6).
Keywords: sorghum, sugar, variety, fodder production, energy, content, protein, fiber, nitrogen-free extractive substance.
V. A. Voloshin Perennial grasses in the collection nursery of Perm Agricultural Research Institute
The paper presents the results of four-year competitive evaluation (winter tolerance, productivity and forage quality) of perennial legume and gramineous grasses in the collection nursery of the Perm region. The experiment used traditional varieties of bastard alfalfa — “Uralochka” and “Blagodat” as well as the promising ones — first-year red clover “Kudesnik” and bastard alfalfa — “Tatarskaya pastbishchnaya”, “Bystraya” and “Selena”. Productivities of hungarian sainfoin varieties exceeded 7.0 t DM ha-1. Meadow fescue “Nadezhda” is promising for further studies. Its productivity made up 7.1 t DM ha-1, surpassing other gramineous varieties by 5-13 %. Cuttng perennial legume grasses before flowering time provided fodder with high content of energy and protein. Crude protein content varied within 14.0-22.3 % among the crops, while exchange energy concentration — within 9.20-11.48 MJ kg-1. Varieties of bastard alfalfa — “Selena” and “Tatarskaya pastbishchnaya” — showed the best values in DM content (11.47 and 11.16 t ha-1), crude protein concentratiom (1982 and 1996 kg ha-1), exchange energy content (107 GJ ha-1) and feed units’ amount (8733 and 8684) for a season. Perennial gramineous underperformed even under application of N60 before cuttng; crude protein values being especially low.
Keywords: perennial grass, productivity, green and dry mass, exchange energy, crude protein.
Genetics, biotechnology, breeding and seed production
M. Yu. Novoselov, O. A. Starshinova, L. V. Drobysheva, G. P. Zyatchina Using allopolyploidy in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) breeding
Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is one of the most productive forage leguminous perennial crops in European Russia. Using allopolyploidy, we aimed to create tetraploid red clover for breeding for higher seed productivity. Following diploid varieties were used: the crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.) K-34540, and the red clover K-32650 No. 226Bts. The latter is an isogenic population on grounds of the marker — white flowers. To get allopolyploids by hybridization between red and crimson clovers, autotetraploids were obtained. Diploid pollen had an invalid form, which allowed identifying chimeric plants in C0 generation. Autotetraploid yield was 64–78 % in C1 generation. They were crossed; the female parent was Tr. pratense L., the male — Tr. incarnatum L. As a result of crossing 40 valuable seeds were obtained at the seed settng level 2.7 %. Allopolyploid yield was 0.14 %. Two hybrids excelled at high self-pollination ability: the seed settng level was 43–56 %. Studied I1 genotypes differed in the self-pollination level from 3–4 % to 91 %. Yield of genotypes with self-pollination level above the average in the experiment achieved 52–54 %. Thus, I2 generation of allopolylpoids with high self-pollination level were obtained by interspecific hybridization between red clover and crimson clover.
Keywords: Trifolium pratense L., Trifolium incarnatum L., allopolyploidy, interspecific hybridization, self-compatibility, seed productivity.
Aspects of forage utilization
Khusainov, T. V. Lapteva Bacterial polysaccharides in feeding milking cows
The aim of the research is to investigate the effect of bacterial polysaccharides on milking cows’ productivity at late lactation phases. The above mentioned lactation period is characterized by stable productivity decrease. Maintaining high level of lactation requires improvement of fodder nutritional value which negatively affects dairy cows’ fleshing. Polysaccharide dextran was analyzed as an alternative. It is produced by Leuconostok mezenteroides. Preparations based on this polysaccharide are widely known in pharmaceutical industry. Monthlong experiment was conducted by including 50 g of dextran into a diet of the experimental group of cows. The results were analyzed by estimating average daily productivity. Lactation curves showed that 50 % of cows kept or increased their productivity in comparison to the reference variant. The experimental group exceeded the reference one in average daily milk yield with natural fat content by 12.3 %. Experimental group showed no changes in milk fat or protein content.
Keywords: bacterial polysaccharide, average daily productivity, high productivity, late lactation