Grassland science and management
E. F. Karakchieva Promising legume-cereal mixtures for arable forage production in the north
A species assortment, which depends on farm’s climatic and resource possibilities, is very important at creating high-productivity agrophytocenoses of perennial grasses. Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is the common legume component of mixtures in the Komi Republic. It is necessary to introduce alternative legume crops for increasing protein level in feed. The article reports studies conducted in two field trials over single-species swards of perennial grasses, and its binary and ternary mixtures. Fertilizers at the rate of N30P45K45 kg ha-1 active ingredient were applied in early spring yearly. It was found that the ternary mixture provided more dry matter, feed units and crude protein than the single common timothy (Phleum pratense L.). The quantity of fodder galega (Galega orientalis Lam.) stems increased to the third year of use by 27–29 p. m-2 in mixtures with smooth brome (Bromopsis inermis Leuss.) and meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.). In the fifth year of life there were 150–158 p. m-2 stems. By that time the cereals content increased by 1.2–1.4 times in comparison with the first year of use. The dry matter yield of fodder galega mixed with cereals was more than in its single sowing by 1.6 times.
Keywords: perennial agrocenosis, red clover, bird’s-foot trefoil, fodder galega, common timothy, productivity, quality.
N. V. Ledyaeva, S. Ya. Syeva Varieties selection of perennial grasses for haymakings in the mid-mountain area of the Altai Republic
Competitive Siberian breeding varieties of perennial grasses were selected in 2011–2014 for restoring natural hayfields. The most appropriate sowing time was found for the mid-mountain area of the Altai Republic, the chemical composition and the nutritional value of the offered varieties were studied. The summer sowing, not later than 20th of June, was the optimal for perennial grasses cultivation for hay. Thus winter survivability, persistence, plant height and yield were the best. Among the gramineous smooth brome (Bromopsis inermis Leuss.) ‘Rassvet’, meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.) ‘Novosibirskaya 21’ and common timothy (Phleum pratense L.) ‘Utro’ with hay yield 5.43–6.54 t ha-1 (the least significant difference — 0.15) were recommended for cultivation. Among the legumes hungarian sainfoin (Onobrychis arenaria (Kit.) DC.) ‘SIBNIIK 30’, bastard alfalfa (Medicago × varia Martyn) varieties ‘Omskaya 7’ and ‘Priobskaya 50’, yellow alfalfa (Medicago falcata L.) ‘Yakutskaya 2’ with hay yield 4.82–5.83 t ha-1 (the least significant difference — 0.12) were advised for this area. Their exchange energy and digestible protein yields by the 10–15 % exceeded those of other varieties of the grasses mentioned. Investments were compensated in the second year of haymaking when cultivating recommended perennial grasses varieties.
Keywords: haymaking, perennial grasses, variety, persistence, chemical composition, nutritional value.
Crop production and arable farming
N. A. Serekpaev, Kh. G. Yancheva, U. M. Sagalbekov, S. K. Makhanova, T. N. Mokreva Correlations between carotene content and some characteristics of alfalfa varieties
Alfalfa hay quality results on carotene content correlated with several chemical characteristics are presented. The carotene amount in the second and third years made up 10.40–17.48 mg kg-1 and 16.64–31.20 mg kg-1 respectively. Correlation between carotene content and hay chemical characteristics and determination factor were estimated. The amount of nitrogen-free extractives (NFE) (r = 0.903 ± 0.082), crude protein (r = 0.880 ± 0.101), nitrogen (r = 0.880 ± 0.101) and crude fat (r = 0.862 ± 0.114) determined the carotene content in the second year. The given parameters contributed greatly to the carotene accumulation of 81.6–74.4 %. The amount of calcium (r = 0.831 ± 0.121) and NFE (r = 0.741 ± 0.184) defined the carotene content in the third year. The correlations among chemical parameters showed various values. Multifactorial analyses provided by SPSS revealed high positive correlation between carotene and magnesium content (0.736**); mean positive correlation between carotene content and green mass yield (0.605*); high negative correlation between carotene and nitrogen content (–0.711**); mean negative correlation between carotene content and hydrothermic coefficient (–0.700**) and between carotene and calcium content (–0.565*). Perspective row material and results obtained will be recommended for alfalfa breeding.
Keywords: alfalfa, variety, accession, carotene, crude protein, magnesium, correlation.
A. A. Nikitin, S. I. Kokonov, O. A. Stradina The productivity of Sudan grass “Chishminskaya rannyaya” depending on crop tending techniques
Frequent droughts in the first half of the summer in the Middle Cis-Ural region caused the necessity of droughtresistant forage crop cultivation. The effect of crop tending techniques on Sudan grass “Chishminskaya ran nyaya” was studied in 2013–2014 on sod-podzolic clay loam of the Middle Cis-Ural region. The field design included factor A and B. Factor A was the tillage with rolling and without it (reference variant). Factor B was crop tending techniques: no treatment (reference variant), water treatment (reference variant), herbicide applying, topdressing with N30, microelement applying (Сu, Zn, Co), harrowing of seedlings, and technique combination. Rolling provided increase in dry matter yield of 0.15 t ha-1, crude protein of 0.02 t ha-1, exchange energy of 2.1 GJ ha-1 on average for 2 years compared to the reference variant. N30 topdressing with and without herbicide applying, microelement and herbicide applying, harrowing the seedlings and N30 topdressing led to significant difference in productivity, crude protein and exchange energy. Harrowing combined with N30 topdressing on the background of rolling after sowing significantly increased Sudan grass dry matter yield by 0.90 t ha-1 and feed productivity: crude protein by 0.25 t ha-1 and exchange energy by 11.0 t ha-1.
Keywords: Sudan grass, rolling, crop tending techniques, dry matter yield, feed productivity.
Genetics, biotechnology, breeding and seed production
I. V. Epifanova, O. A. Timoshkin, M. Sh. Lapina Alfalfa breeding for cultivation in single-species and mixed swards in the forest-steppe of the Middle Volga
The research on bastard alfalfa (Medicago × varia Martyn) breeding focuses on creating varieties with phytoceno tic persistence in mixtures with gramineous. Breeding material was studied in the competitive variety trial in 2013–2014 in single-species swards and mixtures with smooth brome (Bromopsis inernis Leuss.) ‘Penzenskiy 1’. Green mass and dry matter yields depended on weather conditions and varieties’ biological peculiarities. Under the double-cutting the percent of the first cutting was 62–71 % in the first year, and 65 % for the standard. In the second year under drought (hydrothermic coefficient — 0.63) it was 70–78 %. Among the mixtures with smooth brome variety No. 6 (selection from ‘Tatarskaya pastbishchnaya’) was the most promising, characterized by early growing and high resistance to brown patch. Its percent in yield was 57.7 %, digestible protein yield — 1.58 t ha-1. In 1 feed unit there was 170 g digestible protein. Also variety No. 7 (‘Dolgoletnyaya 4/8’) excelled: it’s percent in yield was 40 %, digestible protein yield — 1.58 t ha-1. Protein content in 1 feed unit made up 162 g. Among the single- species swards variety No. 2 (‘Kornevishchnaya’) excelled. It had good foliage (54.3 %) and high resistance to brown patch. Digestible protein yield was 1.59 t ha-1, its content in 1 feed unit — 216 g.
Keywords: alfalfa, breeding, competitive variety trial, productivity.
N. I. Kashevarov, O. A. Rozhanskaya, R. I. Polyudina, S. V. KurkovaChick-pea (Cicer arientinum L.) breeding particularities in West Siberia
Chick-pea (Cicer arientinum L.) is a promising legume crop for Siberian subarid regions. Our work’s aim is studying chick-pea agronomic traits’ forming particularities in West Siberian steppe and forest-steppe to breed new adaptive cultivars for feed and food usage. We used the Pedigree method, and selected from somaclonal variated, induced γ-mutagenesis material, and also from working germplasm collection. Field plots were established by the VIR’s procedures, the cultivar ‘Krasnokutskiy 123’ was the standard. Eight-year data of studying the chick-pea ‘Krasnokutskiy 123’ showed the reducing seed productivity by 30 % and 1000 seed weight by 40 %. Also coefficients of variation for these parameters increased by 15 and 28 % respectively in colder and moist forest-steppe climate by contrast to steppe’s data. The summer months’ temperature and July rainfall significantly influenced on chick-pea seed productivity elements in forest-steppe. Chick-pea breeding in West Siberian steppe should be aimed at improving the resistance to cold weather in June and overwetting in July. In the second-year breeding nursery we selected 7 chick-pea breeding numbers, with 2 pale-seeded (for food usage) among them, which productivity was by 1.5–2 times over standard’s ‘Krasnokutskiy 123’.
Keywords: chick-pea, plant breeding, West Siberian, hydrothermal conditions, steppe, forest-steppe.
G. A. Batalova, N. V. Krotova, S. N. Shevchenko, M. V. TulyakovaScreening the parent material for breeding forage oat
Oat (Avena sativa L.) is an important component of livestock diet. Forage cultivars providing high grain yield are not desirable because they mostly do not provide high green mass yield. The research was carried out in 2007– 2014 in North-East Agricultural Research Institute. The germplasm, obtained from VIR named after N. I. Vavilov, was studied, and sources for creating cultivars for hay and grain-hay were found. The correlation between the duration since standing to heading and green mass yield was r = 0.40, and dry matter yield — r = 0.57, between the resistance to lodging and green mass yield — r = –0.23, and dry matter yield — r = –0.35. Sources for linked breeding for feed and grain productivity were found: 47h99 and ‘Gunter’ (the Kirov region), ‘Konkur’ (the Ulyanovsk region), ‘Sibirskiy kormovoy’ (the Omsk region), ‘Yarovoy br 24’ (Yugoslavia). Leaf-area duration contributed to better grain (r = 0.31), green mass (r = 0.56), and dry matter yield (r = 0.51). Plants height had a negative correlation with grain yield (r = –0.26…–0.52). New promising breeding material 3h14, 24h12o, and 252h10 was created in competitive variety trial. Their green mass productivity was 21.8–24.0 t ha-1, grain productivity — 6.3–6.8 t ha-1, foliage — 65.6–69.9 %. The variety 138h02 combined high dry matter and crude protein yield (9.9 and 1.07 t ha-1 respectively) with resistance to loose smut (Ustilago avenae).
Keywords: oat, breeding number, green mass productivity, dry matter yield, source, promising variety.
TECHNOLOGIES OF LAYING-IN, STORAGE AND USAGE OF FODDER
L. A. Esaulova, V. T. Lopatin Optimizing some parameters of hydroponic green mass growing, and its effect on sheep homeostasis
Germinated grain and hydroculture are perspective biologically complete and ecologically safe fodders normalizing livestock metabolism and providing balance of vitamins, macro- and microelements. Optimal grain weight per unit area to be germinated, effect of fertilizer “FlorGumat” based on humic acids on hydroculture productivity and fodder influence on sheep ruminal digestion were analyzed. Hydroponic machinery GPU-MK and brewing barley “Priazovskiy 9” were used in the experiment. Soaking and watering of 4, 2 and 1 kg of barley grain were done with water while other group of 4 and 2 kg of grain were treated with “FlorGumat”. The group of four Kuchugur lambs was fed with hydroponics (10 % of diet energy nutrition) during 1.5 month to study fodder influence on sheep homeostasis. 4–13.7 kg of grain yielded the best but 2 kg of grain produced 4.3 and 4.5 times more green mass relatively the initial grain weight by the 8th day under fertilizer absence and presence respectively. 4 kg of grain laying led to putrid odor emergence indicating grain excess in trays. “FlorGumat” didn’t provide a significant increase in yield. Hydroponic fodder facilitated ruminal digestion normalization, lamb immunity improvement and calciumphosphorus balance optimization.
Keywords: hydroponic green mass, grain germination, automatic machinery GPU-MK, ruminal digesta parameter.