Economics, management, organization and law in forage production
V. M. Kosolapov, I. A. Trofimov, G. N. Bychkov, L. S. Trofimova, E. P. Yakovleva Forage production, environmental management and agroecology
УДК: 631/635; 502/504; 91
Fodder production is very important for agriculture, environmental management and ecology. The bases of Russian food and ecological security are agriculture, environmental management, balanced development of crop production, animal husbandry, arable farming and optimization of field structure, crop rotation and agrolandscape. Food and ecological securities are closely connected. The main part of food products (98–99 %, including 87 % of protein) people have got by using agrolandscapes (farm lands, soils) for arable farming, crop production and animal husbandry. Agriculture supplies people with food, yet at the same time destroys lands — the basis of agricultural production and environment. Under current conditions of agroindustrial complex development and strong deficit of money and resources improving food and ecological security has to be based on maximum usage of natural and climatic resources as well as biological and ecological factors. Forage production is the largest multifunctional branch of agriculture. It affects all the agricultural spheres, integrating them beneficially into a single system. Due to forage production animal husbandry has got feeds, crop production — crop productivity, arable farming — soil fertility, farm lands — productivity and resistance. It also provides effective management of farm lands and environment, maintaining the required balance between all the branches.
Keywords: forage production, animal husbandry, crop production, arable farming, productivity, resistance, agrolandscape, environmental management, ecology.
Grassland science and management
O. V. Ruleva, N. N. Ovechko Ecological characteristics of agrophytocenosis productivity in irrigated and dry-land forest landscapes
Agrophytocenosis is characterized by predominance of crop plants and specificity of companion crops. The paper deals with botanical composition, structure and dynamics of agrophytocenoses. The research analyzed three plant groups on light chestnut, chestnut and floodplain soils within forest belts (first, second and third size). Segetal, ruderal and admixture plants were distinguished according to ecological characteristics of weeds. The research determined the effect of grassland, steppe and forest associations on plants studied. These weeds provide crops with deficient amount of water, nutrients and light and drain soil as well. Irrigated agrocenosis of barley associations included segetal plant — Сirsium arvense Sc. It is a typical plant for the given association which contains 30 % of admixtures. Dry-land soils showed three types of ruderal and segetal weeds — Agropyrum repens (L.) P. B., Sonchus arvensis L. and Setaria viridis L. It was impossible to distinguish determinant species in this case since they were not prevalent on the field. Determinant species of Сirsium arvense Sc. represented the specifics of the habitat and was found in all associations growing on one field for three years of crop rotation.
Keywords: agrophytocenosis, crop biocenosis, weed, determining species, agroassociation.
N. N. Ivanova, A. D. Kapsamun, N. N. Ambrosimova, E. N. Pavlyuchik, D. A. Vagunin, I. V. Zhimaeva, T. N. Panteleeva Swards’ stable productivity on drained soils in the Non-Chernozem region
The paper deals with the data on highly productive legume-grass mixtures on drained soils in the Non-Chernozem region. Perennial ryegrass and festulolium had higher cenotic activity (0.74) in mixture with birdʼs-foot trefoil while the lowest cenotic activity (0.67) occurred in combination with bastard alfalfa. Ryegrass was more competitive than festulolium. Three- and four-component swards exceeded the conventional ones in green mass productivity by 7.6–14.8 t ha-1. Swards containing perennial ryegrass and white clover provided green mass yield of 27.6-29.5 t ha-1 and the ones with festulolium — 27.9–30.0 t ha-1 surpassing the basic sward only by 0.5–2.9 t ha-1. Common timothy decreased infestation of four-component swards. Including legumes in mixtures (bastard alfalfa “Nakhodka” and birdʼs-foot trefoil “Solnyshko”) significantly improved green mass productivity of swards by 1.8–16.7 t ha-1 or 7.0–66.3 %. Organic topdressing by 1 t ha-1 of multi-purpose compost increased sward yield capacity as well. Three-component swards of perennial ryegrass “VIK-66” and festulolium “VIK-90” in combination with white clover “VIK-70”, birdʼs-foot trefoil “Solnyshko” and bastard alfalfa “Nakhodka” gave the maximum productivity of green mass, dry mass and feed units. These swards are highly adapted to climatic and soil conditions of the Non-Chernozem region.
Keywords: drained soil, perennial ryegrass, festulolium, white clover, bastard alfalfa, birdʼs-foot trefoil, red fescue, grass mixture, productivity.
V. A. Petruk Productivity of improved natural grasslands in Kulunda
Improving quality of Siberian natural lands is of high interest nowadays. The experiment included disk plowing and plowing under organic and mineral fertilization followed by alfalfa-brome sowing. It took place in the steppe area of the Western Siberia. Rates of the fertilizers were calculated to obtain 4 t ha-1 of hay. An amount of organic fertilizers provided nutrients for the following 5 years. Rates of mineral and organic fertilizers were equal in nutrient content (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium). Mineral fertilization occurred annually in spring and was followed by harrowing. Fertilization, disk plowing, and plowing provided significantly higher crop productivity compared to a reference variant. Cost efficiency of grasslands’ melioration confirmed the effectiveness of organic fertilization, disk plowing and grass sowing. These cultivation techniques allowed obtaining high sward productivity and production payback. Sward productivity of the reference variant averaged to 0.5 t ha-1 of feed units for 4 years of the research. The highest productivity occurred under disk plowing and organic fertilization — 1.6 t ha-1 of feed units. This variant was recommended for agricultural production since it showed lower expenses compared to the ones for plowing.
Keywords: natural pasture, disk plowing, plowing, fertilizer, productivity, perennial grass.
Genetics, biotechnology, breeding and seed production
Z. Sh. Shamsutdinov, Yu. M. Piskovatskiy, M. Yu. Novoselov, Yu. S. Tyurin, S. I. Kostenko, N. I. Perepravo, N. N. Kozlov, M. N. Agafodorova, E. Z. Shamsutdinova, N. M. Putsa, G. V. Stepanova, L. V. Drobysheva, V. N. Zolotarev, I. A. Klimenko, S. V. PilipkoAcievements, promising fields and goals in forage crop breeding and seed production
Breeding forage crops is aimed at obtaining varieties resistant to various climatic conditions and bearing economically important traits. Complex for Forage Crop Breeding and Seed production developed in Russia has a high scientific potential. It includes 6 specialized and 12 integrated breeding centers as well as over 20 scientific departments for forage crop breeding and seed production. The Center of Plant Breeding obtained 150 varieties of forage crops. 85 varieties of red clover, alfalfa, annual legume crops, perennial grasses and arid forage crops are widely cultivated. The main features of these varieties are high productivity and fodder quality, positive effect on environment, resistance to soil conditions, good performance in crop mixtures and symbiotic potential. The varieties correspond to the best foreign varieties in productivity and surpass them in winter hardiness, resistance to soil acidity and salinity and performance in combination with other grasses. Over 25 patented breeding methods were developed for legumes and gramineous. The paper describes adaptive systems for seed production of perennial and annual grasses. The Center developed 16 international, national and industrial standards on sowing qualities of perennial legumes’, gramineous’ and arid forage crops’ seeds. The experiment resulted in validating new breeding model based on biogeocenotic principles.
Keywords: forage crop, clover, alfalfa, annual legume crop, perennial grass, arid forage crop.
S. I. Kostenko, V. M. Kosolapov, S. V. Pilipko, E. S. KostenkoKostenko Breeding perrenial gramineous for adaptive forage production
The experiment took place on sod-podzolic soil with medium loam content of the All-Russian Fodder Research Institute. It tested the following crops: perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), giant bentgrass (Agrostis gigantean Roth.), red fescue (Festuca rubra), meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.), cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata L.), smooth brome (Bromopsis inermis), festulolium (Festulolium), common timothy (Phleum pratense L.) etc. Ryegrass variety “VIK 22” can be seasonally cut 4-5 times for 6 years of cultivation. It provides seed productivity of 0.52–0.78 t ha-1, DM yield – 10.8 t ha-1, protein content – 12-15 %. Promising giant bentgrass variety “Alba” is to reclaim soils and be cultivated in fields and lawns. It tends to develop rhizomes, having a big number of shoots per a sward unit. It has green mass productivity of 27-34 t ha-1, seed productivity – 300 kg ha-1, protein concentration – 11.3-18.0 %. The variety is highly resistant to hot and can be cultivated in the Central and Central-Chernozem regions. Common timothy “VIK-911” and perennial ryegrass “Agat” are tested to be cultivated in the most country regions. New lines of smooth brome, red fescue and festulolium are being prepared for State Variety Trial.
Keywords: plant breeding, forage production, variety, perennial gramineous, method, productivity, resistance, trait.
M. S. Khlopyuk, P. M. Khlopyuk, A. N. Pikul Productivity and adaptability criteria of some winter triticale varieties
Increasing productivity of winter triticale is tightly linked with cultivating the most productive and adaptive varieties. In the Tula region, seven winter triticale varieties of Russian breeding from different ecological-geographical origins were studied in 2011– 2015. Years-long mid-varietal average productivity was 6.8 t ha-1. Principles of the genotype-environment interaction were different. Mid-varietal productivity was 7.8 t ha-1 in 2011; it was the most favourable year for the studied winter triticale varieties. The variety ‘Tribun’ produced the highest productivity (7.2 t ha-1) on the average of 2011–2015. The varieties ‘Krokha’ and ‘Tribun’ responded well to improvement of growth conditions, but they dropped productivity under unfavorable meteorological conditions or at a low agricultural background. The regression coefficient bi was 1.25 and 1.27 respectively. The variety ‘Krokha’ had the least productive stability — the variance Si 2 was 0.76. The varieties ‘Vasilisa’ and ‘Nina’ had high productivity (6.9 t ha-1), stability (Si 2 = 0,08), and flexibility (bi = 1,08 and 1,09). According to the regression coefficient, the varieties ‘Bard’ and ‘Tornado’ were flexible (bi = 0,85 и 0,83); thus, these varieties’ stability was low (Si 2 = 0,54 и 0,41). According to ecological flexibility, the variety ‘Nemchinovskiy 56’ was of a neutral type (bi = 0,6). It had the highest stability (Si 2 = 0,05), stress resistance, and homeostasis. Thus, cultivating the variety ‘Nemchinovskiy 56’ is more expedient in the forest-steppe of the Tula region. It produced 6.9 t ha-1 of grain on the average of five years.
Keywords: winter triticale, variety, productivity, ecological flexibility, stability, adaptability, stress resistance.
V. N. Zolotarev Differential peculiarities of diploid and tetraploid varieties of meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.), cultivated for seeds
Economically important traits of varieties mostly promote the efficiency of crop production. For 10 years in a row, three principally new varieties of meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.) were included in the State Register. They are induced tetraploids. In this article, the diploid varieties ‘VIK 5’ and ‘Kvarta’ were compared with the tetraploid variety ‘Binara’. Tetraploid plants were inferior to diploid ones on the tillering intensity. They produced less generative shoots by 22–36 % in the first three years of usage. However, weight of 1000 seeds of the ‘Binara’ was more than this measure of the varieties ‘VIK 5’ and ‘Kvarta’ by 70–84 and 66–75 % respectively. Due to this, seeds weight per 100 panicles of the variety ‘Binara’ was more than of the diploid varieties by 1.8–1.9 and 2.0 times in the first two years of usage. While also the tetraploid meadow fescue variety provided the highest seed yield — 697–589 kg/ha. It was more than the diploid varieties ‘VIK 5’ and ‘Kvarta’ by 56–47 and 47–44 % respectively. There were some morpho-biological differences in the caryopsis structure. Seeds’ hoodness of the varieties ‘VIK 5’ and ‘Kvarta’ was less than of the variety ‘Binara’ by 4.9 and 2.9 %. Differences in germinative power were identified: diploid seedlings had shorter primary roots than tetraploid ones by 14–15 %.
Keywords: meadow fescue, variety, induced tetraploid, productivity, seeds, sowing qualities.