Economics, management, organization and law in forage production
A. B. Volodin, S. I. Kapustin, M. A. Savartsov Intensifying field fodder production in the Stavropol region
УДК: 633, 151.2: 633.2/3
The Stavropol region is characterized by the complicated conditions of agricultural production. Insufficient precipitation and recurrent droughts (in certain years) greatly reduce the yield of the forage crops. To solve this problem it is of paramount importance to cultivate Sorghum vulgare x Sorghum sudanensis hybrids, corn-sorghum mixed crops and sorghum-soybean joint crops. Sorghum belongs to one of the most drought-resistant crops; it tolerates high air temperatures and soil drought; it can grow on sandy, saline and alkaline soils enduring an elevated concentration of salt. Under the conditions of the Stavropol region sorghum is a promising crop; it may help to increase the economic efficiency of the forage production. Sorghum can be a good corn-complementary crop when speaking of weather-independent grain and feed production. With new high-yielding sorghum varieties, the grain yield may amount up to 5…6 tons ha-1. Sweet sorghum, Sudan grass and sorghum hybrids produce 35…40 tons ha-1 of silage and 40…45 tons ha-1 of green mass. Sorghum and corn in different areas of the Stavropol region are not rival crops, but can rather complement one another. When sowing these crops on the crop rotation fields, the following rule should be applied: corn is sown on more fertile soils, but sorghum is sown on the saline, alkaline, erosion-destroyed and stony soils. The richest reserve of the grain and fodder production increase in the arid and unstable-moistening zones may be sweet sorghum-corn for silage joint crops. The studies have shown that the use of this technology increases the yield of green mass by 15…20 % in comparison with single-species crops. To improve the forage production it is necessary to create a stable fodder reserve. This can be achieved by increasing the efficiency of the feed acreage use and by organization of science-based green forage chain to provide an uninterrupted supply of high quality green and succulent feeds for the needs of animal husbandry.
Keywords: sorghum, corn, soybean, productivity, intensification of forage production.
Grassland science and management
S. T. Esedullaev, N. V. Shmeleva Nitrogen accumulation by legumes in singlespecies and mixed crops on sod-podzolic soils
УДК: 546.17: 638.31/37: 6
The most intensive accumulation of nitrogen, including symbiotic one, occurs in the pure crops of the hybrid alfalfa (Medicago sativa var Martyn). The amount of the accumulated nitrogen in the reference variant (without fertilizers) was 182 kg ha-1; in the variant with mineral fertilizers it was 191 kg ha-1; the nitrogen-fixing ability of eastern galega and clover was considerably lower. Speaking of the mixed crops, the hybrid alfalfa had some advantage in the reference variant; in the variant with mineral fertilizers hybrid alfalfa and eastern galega showed similar results. The level of accumulated nitrogen in the mixed crops was decreased in comparison with pure crops. This was caused by the fact that the cereal component of the crop mixture has used part of the nitrogen previously accumulated by the legumes. Improving the conditions of mineral nutrition significantly increased the amount of root residues and accumulated nitrogen only in the pure clover crops, while the eastern galega and alfalfa crops showed only minor changes. The maximum yields of green mass, dry mass, fodder units and digestible protein in the reference variant were provided by alfalfa. Against the background of mineral fertilizers alfalfa surpassed clover only by the yield of green mass, all other indexes being equal. This indicates the efficiency of mineral fertilizers when applied to the clover crops. Productivity of mixed crops against both agricultural backgrounds was nearly identical. The research revealed the best ratio of components in the mixed crops based on the eastern galega: eastern galega 50 % + clover 25 % + timothy 25 %. In the mixed crops based on alfalfa the best ratio of components is as follows: alfalfa 50 % + clover 25 % + timothy 25 % — against both agricultural backgrounds.
Keywords: nitrogen accumulation, pure crops, mixed crops, eastern galega, hybrid alfalfa, the ratio of components in the mixed crops, productivity, nutritional value.
G. V. Stolyarov Organizational and economic potential of forage production under radioactive contamination in the Gomel region
The Gomel region of the Republic of Belarus is one of the regions affected by the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Farm land contamination by cesium-137 and strontium-90 increases forage production costs due to protective measures to be done to prevent radionuclide entry in fodder, animal husbandry products and human organism. In 2014 29961.8 million of Belarusian rubles (including government subvention) was spent only to chalk the soil using dolomite powder. Fodder cost increase defines rising in the cost of milk and other products. The investigation of regional forage production development potential was conducted in 2013; organizational and economic measures improving its effectiveness being formulated. Primary accounting control of 159 agricultural companies in the Gomel region was analyzed. It was found out that 29.4-42.9 % of milk production profitability could be achieved if feed input per 1 t of milk production did not exceed 0.96−1.06 t of feed units. This required intensive and efficient utilization of improved pastures as well as perennial and annual grasses’ cultivation. Therefore cost of 1 t of feed units of green mass obtained was 2.6-9.0 times lower than under grain crop, root crop and potato cultivation.
Keywords: agricultural economy, forage production, cattle breeding, radioactive contamination, protective measure, economic efficiency, expenses.
Crop production and arable farming
V. B. Belyak, O. A. Timoshkin, V. I. Bolakhnova Optimizing fodder cropping pattern in the forest-steppe and dry steppe of the Volga region
The results of long-term experiment for the forest-steppe and steppe of the Volga region are presented. The search for highly adaptive and productive forage crops was conducted. Over 10 minor crops and their mixtures were introduced and recommended for cultivation. To provide livestock regular feeding with greens in summer and lay-in roughages and succulent fodders the conveyor of annual (vetch-oat mixture; winter rye and winter vetch; Sudan grass and winter vetch) and perennial crop mixtures (eastern goat’s-rue, smooth brome, meadow fescue, Festuca arundinacea etc.) was developed. Increasing the range of cultivated oil crops (winter camelina, flax “Istok”containing modified fatty acids) and legumes (forage beans, lupine, soybean and chick-pea) is expected to enable regular diet balanced by protein and amino acids. Mixtures of annual green manure cole crops and legumes were developed. According to the large data on biennial melilot novel perspective variety “Solnyshko” of Melilotus hirsutus was chosen for State Variety Trial and enlisted in the State Register for varieties accepted for cultivation. Annual green manure mixtures and biennial melilot provided significant soil organic matter and macroelement content. Original byfarm rotation schemes of grain and oil crops characterized by highly productive arable land and increasing humus content were developed.
Keywords: introduction, forage mixture, green manuring, productivity, product quality.
E. A. Tyapugin, N. Y. Konovalova, P. N. Kalabashkin, S. S. Konovalova Technology for creating perennial swards with festulolium in the Northern European Russia
The North-West Research Institute of Milk and Grassland Agriculture studied the ways of creating and using swards with festulolium (×Festulolium F. Aschers. et Graebn.) in 2011–2014. Binary, ternary and quaternary grass mixtures with different legumes were studied on the Institute’s field trial: with red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), bastard alfalfa (Medicago×varia Martyn), bird’s-foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.). In the mixtures with red clover and bird’s-foot trefoil festulolium was the most persistent. In the mixtures with alfalfa the festulolium content permanently decreased and by 2014 was only 12.3–13.0 %. The variant festulolium + clover + bird’s-foot + alfalfa provided the maximal crude protein yield, 1.5 tons ha-1, the pure festulolium — the minimal, 0.5 tons ha-1. We also studied the influence of first cutting date on productivity and quality of obtained plant materials. Cutting at later development stages allowed increasing productivity by 20 %. Lodging occurred at the second date of the first cutting with increasing of plant height. The plant mass had more protein, exchanged energy and less fibre when cutting at first head stage of festulolium and bud stage of legumes (the first date). The mixtures with bastard alfalfa provided the most evenly yield distribution over cuttings (60:40 %).
Keywords: festulolium, red clover, birdʼs-foot trefoil, bastard alfalfa, grass mixture, productivity, protein.
Genetics, biotechnology, breeding and seed production
Yu. V. Taranich, V. A. Chuvilina Agroecological variety testing of sudan grass in the south of Sakhalin
In the Sakhalin region temperature tends to increase during the growing season. Accumulated average positive temperatures from May to September (2006-2014) were 2143°C compared to the long term average temperatures of 1800°C. Limited number of forage crops stimulates the constant search for highly productive, qualitative and resistant varieties. The article presents the agroecological testing results of five Sudan grass varieties (“Kinelskaya 100”, “Novosibirskaya 84”, “Aleksandrina”, “Luninskaya 1”, “Severyanka”) under monsoon climate conditions. Experiments were conducted on the meadow-sod clay-loam soils according to the standard variety testing techniques. The sowing was performed in the first decade of June, under stable soil and air temperature regime. Heading and flowering phases formed during 49…70 and 59…85 days depending on variety. In 2012-2014 “Aleksandrina” (All-Russian Research Institute of Grain Crops) was the most productive variety. After 70…85 days of the growing season values of green mass, dry matter, crude protein, fodder units and exchange energy obtained from 1 ha at heading and flowering time respectively were the following: 48.0 and 43.3 t; 12.7 and 10.7 t; 0.99 and 0.87 t; 11.3 and 9.1 t; 62.0 and 65.1 GJ. Sudan grass was concluded to take a certain position for forage production in Sakhalin.
Keywords: Sudan grass, domestic variety, productivity, forage quality.
Aspects of forage utilization
M. Yu. Cherednichenko, O. B. Polivanova, M. M. MubarakInternational practice of using pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium L.) in poultry diets
Using herbs’ and essential oil plants’ extracts and powder from dried shoots can increase the poultry productivity. Similar investigations regarding the use of nettle, oregano, thyme and different plant varieties of the Mentha genus have been conducted recently. Pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium L.) is a less distributed species compared to peppermint and spearmint; the number of experiments concerning its usage being rather limited. Experiments including pennyroyal powder and extract in a diet mainly touch upon four components of productivity: actual productivity, product quality, influence on poultry health and biochemical characteristics as well as economic parameters (feed conversion ratio). Under contradictory data most researchers report positive pennyroyal effect on all characteristics listed. Influence on poultry health and biochemical characteristics was estimated to be positive or neutral. Investigations showing negative influence are limited. Positive effect includes appetite and digestion improvement, the latter is due to the influence of secondary metabolites’ enzymatic activity on lipid and amino acid metabolism. Essential oil components’ antimicrobial activity is considered to be beneficial and stimulates lactobacillus development. Besides, several compounds of pennyroyal essential oil show immunogenic effect. Pennyroyal powder and extract use in poultry diets to increase hen and broiler productivity is a perspective field of study.
Keywords: Mentha pulegium, feeding, feed supplement, poultry farming, livestock productivity, antimicrobial activity.
Mechanization, automation and information technologies
N. A. Sotnikova, A. V. Panov, D. N. Kurbakov Agrochemical technologies for producing fodders on radioactively contaminated territories
High levels of radionuclide contamination of farmlands of the Russian Federation affected by the Chernobyl accident, led to the necessity of global protective and recovery measures application in different branches of agroindustrial complex. Agrotechnical and agrochemical technologies such as utilization of different types of mineral (NPK) and organic fertilizers (manure, green manure crops), acid soils’ liming, sorbent and polynutrient fertilizers’ application were introduced in crop science and forage production in order to obtain products satisfying radiological standards on contaminated territories. However estimation of radiological conditions in the Bryanks region indicated that during the long time after the Chernobyl accident the content of 137Cs exceeded a health-based exposure limit in forage and animal husbandry production. High variability of protective and recovery measures required the development of methods allowing its optimization. Scientific literature on the problem of forage lands’ recovery was collected, generalized and analyzed. Database including radiological and economic parameters of standard and recovery technologies of forage production was developed. The database contained information of agrochemical technologies’ effectiveness in forage production such as the region’s data, parameters of experiments carried out, soil’s physico-chemical characteristics, crops, types and doses of fertilizers used, results of recovery technologies’ introduction and literature.
Keywords: database, radioactive contamination, agriculture, recovery technology, forage production.