Economics, management, organization and law in forage production
N. N. Melnik, O. M. Tambovtseva Marketing potential of hayfield and grassland plants
In this paper the authors offer to use service Yandex.Wordstat in order to determine marketing potential of hayfield and grassland plants which agricultural scientists have never done before. Yandex.Wordstat is widely used by commercial companies but only scientists of few study fields paid attention to this tool. The article presents information on Yandex search requests regarding 396 hayfield and grassland plant names including 272 Russian and 124 Latin names. The marketing potential of crops for the Russian-speaking part of the Internet made up 680 thousand search requests for the first 7 months in 2016. Aggregates on plant groups were shown for Russian and Latin names. The authors determined the dynamics on demand growth among plant names in Russian and Latin languages. They presented the rating of 39 the most popular hayfield and grassland plant names making more than 80 % of the all search requests. The most popular plant name was “klever krasnyy” (red clover) having 24 004 search requests in July, 2016. Ratings for plant names having over 80 % of search requests in a month among diff erent plant groups: gramineous — for 12 names, legumes — 7, sedgy — 4, herbs — 12, arid crops — 5, lichen — 2, poisonous palnts — 11.
Keywords: grassland, plant, forage production, fodder crop, grass, herb, gramineous, legume, sedgy, arid crop, lichen, poisonous plant, statistics, search request, online marketing, Yandex, Yandex.Wordstat.
Grassland science and management
V. B. Belyak, O. A. Timoshkin, V. I. Bolakhnova Novel components of hayfieldpasture grass mixtures for forest steppe
The paper includes the results on developing technologies for hayfields’ and pastures’ cultivation in beef cattle feeding. The research took place on the trial field of Penza Agricultural Research Institute in the period 2015-2016 in accordance with the standard techniques. The leached chernozem had high amount of available forms of macronutrients. The experiment evaluated less common components of perennial agrocenoses having high values in productivity, forage mass, drought-resistance, longevity, resistance to constant grazing as well as vegetative apparatus determining their ability to regrowth. All the components were divided into hayfield and pasture groups according to their morphological and agrobiological features to develop more efficient swards for special purposes. The experiment also analyzed interaction among the components in agrocenoses, their productivity, response to hmidification and capacity to form second, third and subsequent cuts. The mixture of eastern goat’s rue, tall fescue and smooth brome performed the best among other pasture swards under various weather conditions. It produced 11.3 t dry matter (DM), 12.2 GJ exchange energy and 1.43 t crude protein per 1 ha. Productivity of hayfield swards with alfalfa was high and made up 12.1 t DM ha-1 including 121 GJ exchange energy and 1.28 t crude protein.
Keywords: perennial grass, hayfield, pasture, grass mixture, productivity, longevity.
V. V. Osipova, N. E. Pavlov Sward botanical composition and productivity as affected by sowing and cutting time in hay production
The experiment tested the possibility of adaptive self-regulating sward cultivation and its longevity on cryogenic pale-yellow soil of Yakutia. Periods of sowing were divided into early summer (10.06), summer (10.07), late summer (10.08) and autumn (10.09). Cutti ng was done on 01.07, 01.08 and 01.09. Sward mineral fertilization by N60P80K80 occurred annually. All the years of cultivation, except the second one, showed insufficient warmth in autumn and moisture in summer affecting negatively forage mass yield. Summer planting (10.07) was considered to be the best since green mass yield varied within 6.16 and 12.8 t ha-1. Sward productivity under late cutting differed among the years and was influenced by different productive longevity of sward components and climatic conditions. In the first two years agrocenosis included wild rye and yellow melilot as the main components while on the third and forth years sickle alfalfa and wild rye has the main part. Summer sward had the highest productivity of 14.9 и 17.4 t ha-1 when it was cut on 01.08 and 01.09 respectively. Autumn sward had maximum hay yield of 7.5 t ha-1 under cutting on 01.08. The highest dry matter content happened when summer sward was cut on 01.09.
Keywords: grass mixture, hayfield, productivity, green mass, botanical composition.
S. A. Belchenko, A. V. Dronov, V. E. Torikov, I. N. Belous Sorghum in developing green and row material conveyers in the Bryansk region
Bioclimatic conditions of the south-west of the Central region are favorable for fodder production development and intensification. Fodder production requires reduced costs both for feeds and plant protein production. Long term experiments on sorghum cultivation for forage production suggested various tillage techniques. They took place on gray forest soil in the Bryansk region. The aim was to determine suitability of sorghum in developing green and row material conveyers. The research defined best seeding and harvesting times of various sorghum varieties and hybrids to obtain high-quality green fodder, haylage, silage, grass meal and pellet. Sorghum feeds were determined to contain high amount of energy and carbohydrates. Sorghum cultivation as two-cut crop was economically effective. Sudan grass forage mass is balanced by sugar-protein ratio and has high mineral quantity. Green mass yield varied from 35-40 t ha-1 (sorghum grass for 2 cuts) to 75-85 t ha-1 (sweet sorghum F1 hybrids). Techniques are being introduced on forage sorghum cultivation as monoculture and mixture with grain legumes and cole crops. Grassland forage production is promising and economically profitable. Improved and optimized feed production elements and components allow increasing hayfield and pasture productivity.
Keywords: fodder production, sorghum, mixed agrocenoses, green, row material conveyer, seeding time.
A. B. Butukhanov, S. Ch. Sodboeva, R. M. Butukhanov, T. D. Namdakova, T. B. Todorkhoeva, B. Ganchimeg Grassland irrigation in Siberia by icefield water
УДК: 631.67:633.2 (571.54
The paper deals with an aspect which is very important for Sibaria — grassland irrigation by icefield water. Insufficient amount of precipitations and cold climate of the region is serious hurdle for highly productive fodder production. In order to solve the problem of water regime, irrigation techniques were successfully implied by icefield water. The paper describes in detail irrigation by snow and ice melting as well as by streams and headwaters. Visual material is presented. It shows practical using of the techniques said. Above mentioned method of water accumulation is recommended for grassland fodder production as well as for effective development of agriculture in the Republic of Buryatia.
Keywords: irrigation, hayfield, hay yield, dam, icefield formation, mountain stream, headwater
Crop production and arable farming
A. A. Dedov, A. V. Dedov, M. A. Nesmeyanova Cultivating alfalfa for fodder production
Currently animal husbandry has an important goal to form stable fodder base. Reaching this aim it is important to obtain forage of high quality and feed value under minimum labor, material and financial costs. Farmers of small enterprises are aimed at having high crop productivity as well as maintaining and improving soil fertility under high production payback. Arable Farming department of Voronezh State Agrarian University proved the concept of obtaining feeds which are rich in protein by crop binary planting (sunflower, alfalfa) followed by cultivation of legumes in combination with seeded fallow. The research took place on typical chernozem soil in south-eastern part of Central Chernozem region. The results obtained showed that wide-row planting provided both alfalfa high green mass productivity (13.74 t ha-1) and improving sunflower productivity (by 0.22–0.33 t ha-1). Content of available moisture in soil stayed sufficient for winter wheat cultivation (165 mm). Additionally nutrient content in soil improved due to alfalfa root system activity. Green fodder production using seeded fallow is considered to be highly profitable since part of the costs is shared with sunflower seed production (156-196 %).
Keywords: alfalfa, binary planting, forage production, productivity, profitability, cultivation.
T. N. Dronova, N. I. Burtseva, S. Yu. Nevezhin, I. P. Ivina Productivity of tall fescue when conjunctively used for forage and seeds.
The main elements of cultural practices were developed for a new in the region perennial gramineous crop — tall fescue (Festuсa arundinacea Schreb.), used conjunctively for forage and seeds. A three-factor field trial was carried out on irrigated lands. It included spring and summer sowing times, drilling and wide-row sowing, and five sowing rates: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 mln of viable seeds per 1 ha. The highest seed yield of the second–fourth years fescue was 550–710 kg ha-1 if it was sowed in the summer by the wide-row method with the sowing rate 3.0 mln of viable seeds per 1 ha. Spring wide-row sowings produced 490–585 kg ha-1 of seeds. Fescue formed seed yield at 82–93 days with the sum of active temperatures by 1600 ± 50°С, then it formed the second yield for forage at 37–39 days with the sum of active temperatures by 950 ± 20°С. Forage productivity of fescue increased with the growth of plant density, and it achieved the maximum (24.3–32.5 t ha-1 of green mass) over drilling with the sowing rate 5–6 mln of viable seeds per 1 ha. Thus, the combined usage of tall fescue provided 400–700 kg ha-1 of certified seeds, 27– 32 5 t ha-1 of green mass, 2.8–3.7 th of feed units, 290–390 kg of digestible protein, and 50–65 GJ of exchange energy under dry and hot climate in the Lower Volga region.
Keywords: sowing time, sowing method, sowing rate, productivity, seeds, feed, quality.
V. V. Chumakova, V. F. Chumakov, V. Val. Chumakova Herbs in fodder production
Our long-term experiment resulted in developing new herb varieties to be used as food, medical, ornamental, bee and forage crops. New Scorzonera hispanica variety — “Solnechnaya premera” — shows resistance to drought, cold, frost, diseases and pests; it requires no special soil conditions and cultivating techniques. The crop can be cut (beginning of generative shoot formation) in early April yielding 30-33 t ha-1 and being able to give up to 40 t ha-1 in the second cut. Green mass is good for livestock up to May-June (flowering time end). Green mass productivity at flowering time makes up 40-45 t ha-1. Lophanthus anisatus is an alternative promising forage crop for cultivation in Southern Russia. Novel Lophanthus anisatus variety — “Premer” — was obtained via interspecific hybridization and is cultivated in Russia since 2011. It has high leaf coverage and tilling capacity. Plant height reaches 165-180 cm at flowering time. Growing season is 30-40 days from spring germination to green mass harvesting, fully matured seeds require 170-180 days. The variety tolerates drought, resist diseases and pests and has good winter hardiness and longevity. Green phytomass yield is 18-21 t ha-1 on average for five years, the dry one — 5-6.4 t ha-1, seed productivity — 3.2-4.0 t ha-1.
Keywords: grass mixture, variety, biologically active substances, fodder production.
Genetics, biotechnology, breeding and seed production
A. E. Nagibin, M. A. Tormozin, A. A. Zyryantseva New red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) variety ‘Dobryak’
Morphological, biological, ecological, and economical markers and traits were described for a new red clover variety ‘Dobryak’. Red clover has good palatability, and it regrows well after mowing and grazing. It matures to the second year and persists in the grass stand up to 3–4 years. The breeding mainstream is identification and creation modern varieties featuring early ripeness, winter hardiness, high feed and seed productivity. Leguminous grasses occupy a significant place among grass plantings; they are the main source of proper high-protein feed. The red clover variety ‘Dobryak’ produces two hays per year. Its seeds mature at 5–7 days earlier than standard ‘Drakon’. The new variety produced reliable yields on low-cultured soils, and it is suitable for high-technical cultural practices. For seed and feed usage, it should be sown both without cover and in crop. Cover crop, e.g. grain crops or annual grasses for green mass, must be resistant to lodging. In the state varietal trial, the red clover variety ‘Dobryak’ exceeded the standards in different regions by 0.06–0.18 t ha-1 of dry matter. The maximum yield (15.7 t ha-1) was obtained by the second-year grass stand in the Sverdlovsk state strain-testing station in the Orel region in 2014. Since 2016 the red clover variety ‘Dobryak’ was included in the State Register of Breeding Achievements for cultivating in the North, North- West, Central, Volga-Vyatka, and Central-Chernozem regions of Russia.
Keywords: clover, breeding, seed production, productivity, variety, winter hardiness.
V. I. Cherniavskih Recurrent selection as the basis for increasing the productivity of alfalfa if the Central Chernozem Region
УДК: 631.527.8: 633.311
The main direction of breeding research of alfalfa in the Central Chernozem Region (CCR) is to increase its feed and seed productivity. In the LLC “Beltravy”, NRU “BelSU” and CJSC “Krasnoyaruzhskaya zernovaya kompaniya” more than 3 000 breeding samples have been studied in 2000–2016. Synthetic populations were created on the basis of polycrossing followed by selfpollination as well as using of local forms selected in the gullies and ravines complexes. Then two new varieties of alfalfa ‘Krasnoyaruzhskaya 1’ and ‘Krasnoyaruzhskaya 2’ were obtained. The former has a high heritability mf-recessive mutation (multifoliolate). The general background of grass is dark green with a bluish tinge. The variety ‘Krasnoyaruzhskaya 2’ has more delicate light green herbage. In 2012–2015 years the results showed that the foliage of the variety ‘Krasnoyaruzhskaya 1’ was 56.3– 58.6 %, ‘Krasnoyaruzhskaya 2’ — 52.6–55.1 %, of the standard ‘Belgorodskaya 86’ — 51.0—53.2 %. New varieties exceeded the standard in green mass by 7.42–8.25 t ha-1, and showed stable seed productivity 416–418 kg ha-1 (Cv = 4.5–5.3 %). The protein content during mowing ripeness was 19.1–22.3 %. In 2016 the varieties ‘Krasnoyaruzhskaya 1’ and ‘Krasnoyaruzhskaya 2’ were allowed for using in the CCR, and on the basis of CJSC “Krasnoyaruzhskaya zernovaya kompaniya”, together with scientists from the Belgorod NRU, the industrial seed production of new varieties is developed. Selections by different traits from these varieties were included in the schemes of further recurrent selection of alfalfa.
Keywords: bastard alfalfa, recurrent selection, multifoliolate, feed efficiency, seed production, seed production.
V. F. Kazarin, A. A. Kuryanovich, I. A. Volodina, A. A. Toibova Quality evaluation of alfalfa (Medicago varia Mart.) varieties, promising for breeding in the Middle Volga region
For following bastard alfalfa (Medicago varia Mart.) breeding, it is important to find adaptive varieties with high feed quality and productivity. This botanical species of alfalfa is the most adaptive to the Middle Volga conditions. Studies were carried out in a competitive field trial since 2007 to 2012. Prevailing weather conditions allowed to evaluate adequately an adaptive potential of the studied varieties. The peculiarities of variation and correlation the most important qualitative features of green mass were established under deficient precipitation. Foliage was 40.2–54.3 %; the varieties ‘Izumruda’ and ‘Gyuzel SP-03’ were on the top, and exceeded the standard by 4.8 and 4.7 % respectively. Foliage strongly correlated with green mass (r = 0.87) and dry matter (r = 0.86) yields. The strong (r = 0.78) and very strong (r = 0.90) correlation were between protein and carotene content in the green mass. Four productive varieties were selected by a complex of qualitative features: yields of feed units, digestible protein, and exchange energy per 1 ha, optimal content of protein, fiber, oil, free-nitrogen extract, and carotene, which conformed to the zootechnical standards. The varieties ‘Izumruda’, ‘Tatarskaya pastbishchnaya 99’, ‘Gyuzel SP-03’, and ‘Populyatsiya 4’ were adaptive to unstable weather conditions of the Middle Volga region. They can be used in the breeding process of creating alfalfa varieties for the Volga region.
Keywords: perennial grasses, alfalfa, adaptivity, productivity, feed quality.