Grassland science and management
L. P. Baykalova, D. V. Krivnogova Energy efficiency and content in perrennial legume-grass mixtures in the Krasnoyarsk Krai
In the Krasnoyarsk Krai the lack of proper tillage led to abandonment of fertile lands used earlier as forage lands. The paper deals with the data on energy value of perennial legume-grass mixtures to be cut in a medium-term period. The experiment took place on Krasnoyarsk State Agrarian University in 2010-2014. It analyzed the perennial grasses’ varieties and their mixtures adapted to the conditions of the Krasnoyarsk Krai: smooth brome, common timothy, hybrid alfalfa, hungarian sainfoin, eastern galega, yellow melilot and red clover. Perennial legume grasses, including hybrid alfalfa, had high energy content at heading and flowering times: 9.897 and 9.0 MJ kg-1; their mixtures showing 9.635 and 8.858 MJ kg-1, respectively. However legume- grass mixtures significantly exceeded the reference variant in energy efficiency. The best mixtures in productivity cut at heading stage were smooth brome 65 %, common timothy 30 % and eastern galega 65 %; smooth brome 65 %, common timothy 30 % and hungarian sainfoin 65 %; at flowering time – smooth brome 75 %, common timothy 40 % and red clover 75 %; at fruiting time – smooth brome 65 %, common timothy 30 % and alfalfa 65 %.
Keywords: energy efficiency, energy content, medium-term hayfield, perennial legume-grass mixture, cutting time.
A. A. Kutuzova, I. V. Stepanishchev, T. V. Leonidova Effectiveness of all-aged fallows’ reclamation into farm fields
As a result of reorganization of agriculture in Russia over 40 million ha of arable lands became uncultivated. Nowadays it is important to use efficiently all agricultural lands including fields whose cultivation stopped (forced fallows). The research took place on the All-Russian Williams Fodder Research Institute in 1999-2014. It was aimed at reclaiming fallows into grasslands, improving soil fertility. It also determined productivity of lands after their recultivation. Backgrounds of swards of various age was formed allowing determination of environmental effect. Grasses showed high bottom development (14.6–46.9 t DM ha-1). Bottoms accumulated 283-648 kg ha-1 of nitrogen. Organic matter content in soil increased after significant reduction in phosphorus and potassium supply. Clover-gramineous mixtures followed by ryegrass positively affected the productivity of the latter (on the background of Р30К60). Such lands are recommended to be reclaimed into fields in the first place. Cultivating 8- and 15-years old fallows resulted in a shortage of forage of 48-85 thousands of feed units per 1 ha compared to field conservation into grassland in the first year.
Keywords: all-aged fallows, bottom, sward productivity, fertilizer element uptake.
Crop production and arable farming
N. A. Ulanov, A. N. Ulanov, I. Ya. Kopysov Cutover peatland characteristics and productivity under bilateral control of water regime
Irrigation is an artificial water application from the top or bottom to the root system location. The advantage of hydromorphic soils as well as cutover peatlands is closeness of subsaline groundwater reservoir to an upper soil layer. This fact significantly simplifies the problem of water supply optimization. The research was aimed at analyzing productivities of annual and perennial forage crops cultivated on cutover peatlands under bilateral control of water regime. Steel sluice, constructed by “Kirovvodproekt”, JSC, was used as semi-permeable barrier to control waste and ground water flows. Sluice effectiveness made up 50– 60 % of the total area. The experiment established time of full hydrostatic stability of water regime resulting from sluice manipulation in various year periods. Closing the gate in summer provided hydrostatic stability after 9-10 days while in autumn – after 4-6 days. The research revealed cause-and-effect relationship of precipitations and ground water dynamics depending on the depth at which water is encountered. It also established the degree of ground water level impact on annual and perennial forage crops’ productivity in study area and on-the-farm conditions. The article presents data on dynamics and type of different moisture forms’ distribution in soil and sluicing effect on this process.
Keywords: cutover peatland, water regime, sluice, ground water level, precipitation, productivity.
A. V. Abramchuk, M. Yu. Karpukhin Growth and development characteristics of vetches (Vicia L.) under introduction
УДК: 635.550.3 : 581.14
Nowadays use of wild vetches in fodder production is very limited regardless their value in providing livestock with high-quality feeds, enriched with protein. The experiment on vetch growth and development took place in 2007–2011on farm «Uralets», located in the Beloyarsk rayon of the Sverdlovsk region. Field trial included 3 variants – Vicia sepium L., Vicia sylvatica L., and Vicia megalotropis Ldb. Analyses were conducted after the first cut. Cutting was done at a flowering time. Vicia sylvatica signifi cantly exceeded other species in height and average daily growth. Vicia megalotropis showed low values: its average daily growth made up 1.1-1.5 cm. For five years of the research productivity of the vetches amounted to 13.6 t ha-1 for Vicia sepium L.; 17.9 t ha-1 for Vicia sylvatica L. and 11.7 t ha-1 for Vicia megalotropis Ldb. All vetch species formed the maximum productivity on the second year of cultivation. Starting from the third year productivity tended to decrease. The fourth year of the experiment was characterized by dyewood of plants and reduction in plant number within populations. Consequently this led to a sharp decline of productivity of the plant tops.
Keywords: introduction, Vicia sepium, Vicia sylvatica, Vicia megalotropis, phytocenosis, population, phenological phases, growing season, height dynamics, generative shoot structure, productivity.
Genetics, biotechnology, breeding and seed production
A. G. Emelyanova, V. R. Stepanova, V. M. Koryakina The new smooth brome variety ‘Erkeeni’ for sown hayfields in Yakutiya
Since thirties of the previous century, scientific studies in introduction and breeding smooth brome (Bromopsis inermis Leuss.) as valuable feed gramineous plant had been carried out in Yakutiya. One smooth brome variety ‘Kamalinskiy 14’ (by Krasnoyarsk Agricultural Research Institute) was admitted for use in the Republic in 1974. Through screening wild forms of smooth brome, the sample from the Ordzhonikidzevskiy district was chosen. It has high adaptability to extreme environmetal conditions in Yakutiya. Using controlled interpollination, this ecotype was crossed with high-productive varieties ‘Morshanskiy 760’ and ‘Kamalinskiy 14’. Through the followed selection, the new variety ‘Erkeeni’ was created. Since 2014 the State Register of Breeding Achievements has included this variety for use in the East-Siberian region of Russia. ‘Erkeeni’ has high adaptability to local conditions, winter hardiness; it is resistant to winter grazing of horses. The period from spring growth to cutting maturity is 55–60 days; the growing period to full maturity of seeds is 78–89 days. In 2008–2012 in competitive field trial, ‘Erkeeni’ produced maximum 21.3 t ha-1 of green mass, 7.5 t ha-1 of dry matter, and 0.6 t ha-1 of seeds, and it exceeded the standard over 22, 10, and 22 % respectively on average of all years of testing. The variety ‘Erkeeni’ is advised for sowing swards for mowing and grazing usage in districts with sufficient precipitation.
Keywords: plant breeding, smooth brome, crossing, selection, productivity, green mass, seeds.
A. A. Goncharenko Winter rye breeding for high and low viscosity of water extract by divergent selection
Improvement of rye grain practical use is the important breeding problem. Cultivated rye varieties are used for baking, and they are out of many traits for forage grain which must have low concentration of water-soluble pentosans. The aim was to analyze the results of 9 cycles of divergent selection by the viscosity of water extract (VWE) from the varieties ‘Alfa’ and ‘Moskovskaya 12’. Efficiency of selection depended both on the genotype of the variety and on the direction of selection. After 9 cycles of selection, divergent populations from variety ‘Alfa’ differed in viscosity by 7.2 times (17.4 cP after plus-selection, 2.4 cP after minus-selection), those from variety ‘Moskovskaya 12’ — by 12.3 times (55.5 cP after plus-selection, 4.5 cP after minus-selection). The asymmetry was found: selection in the plus-direction was more efficient than in the minus-direction. The reasons of genetic asymmetry and varietal distinctions in response to selection are discussed. The divergent selection by VWE correlatively changed many grain quality traits. The high-viscosity populations had higher grain-unit, weight of 1,000 seeds, falling number, amylograph peak height, they provided more qualitative bread, but had small bread volume. The low-viscosity populations provided strongly blurring bread with sticky coarse-pored crumb, but had higher bread volume. Thus, using divergent selection by VWE one can purposefully change the rye grain quality according to breeding tasks.
Keywords: winter rye, divergent selection, water extract viscosity, population, baking quality.
Aspects of forage utilization
R. V. Rusakov, S. N. Zavivaev, V. N. Nechaev Antioxidant defense system of dairy cows as affected by the complex of biologically active substances (BAS)
Antioxidant defense system of highly-productive dairy cows is of great interest in recent years. It is one of the physiological systems involved in milk productivity formation and reproductive functions’ regulation. The research was aimed at analyzing availability of nutrients having antioxidant activity in dairy cows’ diet in the Kirov region. It also studied impact of specially developed biologically active substances (BAS) on cow antioxidant defense system at various physiological stages. Deficiency of copper, zinc, sulfur and carotene in the cow diet reached 53, 75, 60 and 31 %, respectively, depending on the certain period. Complex of BAS had antioxidant effect and contained optimal amounts of vitamins A, E, H, feed sulfur, copper, manganese, magnesium, zinc, selenium, ascorbic and succinic acids. The experiment tested the efficiency of such complex in milking and dry cows’ diet compared to basic vitamin and mineral premixes. It also determined the BAS influence on cow antioxidant defense system in late dry period and in the middle of lactation. The BAS complex provided cows more effectively with natural antioxidants. Antioxidant defense system improved due to higher concentrations of ceruloplasmin (exceeding the control group by 19.7 and 44.1 %) and sulfhydryl groups and lower malondialdehyde accumulation.
Keywords: feeding, dairy cow, biologically active substance, antioxidant, antioxidant defense system.
Yu. A. Ponomarenko Lupine and rapeseed oil and meal in layer diet
Lupine, rapeseed meal and oil are unusual fodder for poultry since they contains substances negatively affecting poultry productivity and product quality. But they can be used as feedstuffingredients under controlled conditions. The research took place on “1-ya Minskaya ptitsefabrika”, JSC. Layers “Khayseks belyy” aged 37-60 weeks. The experiment analyzed adding rapeseed meal (maximum 0.3 and 0.3-0.8 % of isothiocyanates on absolute dry basis), oil (up to 3 % of erucic acid) and lupine (maximum 0.065 % of alkaloids) to feedstuff reducing content of sunflower meal and oil as well as soybean meal. It formed six analogue and one reference groups (n = 100). Concentration of above mentioned feeds varied among groups. Experimental groups showed the same productivity and egg quality as the reference one. Fodder for poultry aged over 17 weeks should include maximum 7 and 5 % of rapeseed meals (0.3 and 0.3-0.8 % of isothiocyanates respectively) and 3 % of rapeseed oil (up to 3 % of erucic acid). Layers aged 17–60 weeks can be fed by 10 % of lupine containing maximum 0.065 % of alkaloids while 60 weekold layers – by 15 %.
Keywords: rapeseed meal, rapeseed oil, lupine, isothiocyanate, erucic acid, alkaloid, layer, egg yield.
Mechanization, automation and information technologies
Important factors when choosing an air-seeder (Current interview)