Grassland science and management
N. A. Semenov, N. A. Muromtsev, A. N. Snitko Scientific evidence for reclaiming long and middle-term fallows to be used as grasslands in the non-chernozem region
Nowadays more than 40 million hectares of fields are not cultivated in Russia and attempts to reclaim them are often performed with no information on their fertility and flora. Lysimeter experiment conducted in the period from 2008 to 2012 aimed at hayfields’ development by conserving and reclaiming medium-term and long fallow overgrown with common for the Non- Chernozem region bushgrass and warty birch. Data on variation in sward productivity and nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium uptake by plants allowed predicting variation in crop productivity under the fallow cultivation. Productivity of sward consisted of gramineous dropped by 13-22 % for the first two years and by 11-13 % for five years on the average due to the change of processes occurring in the sod-podzolic soil under the application of 17.2 t DM ha-1 of bushgrass biomass and 77.6 t DM ha-1 of small birch trees. On the background of N72P12K72 the negative effect of these processes remained. Only after sowing legumegramineous mixtures crop productivity increased by 40 % compared to gramineous sward and by 22 % compared to the reference variant (fallow conservation). On the background of P12K72 legume-gramineous sward productivity matched the one of gramineous hayfields fertilized by N360.
Keywords: lysimeter experiment, medium-term, long fallow, productivity, sward, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium uptake.
Crop production and arable farming
A. B. Ponomarev, N. N. Zezin Raw material chain of cruciferous oil crops in the Middle Urals
The research evaluated and selected highly productive varieties and hybrids of rapeseed, wild cabbage and other oil crops to develop a row material chain. It took place on the gray forest clay loam of Ural Research Institute of Agriculture in Koltsovo. In 2013 rapeseed varieties and hybrids matured by September 9th under hot and dry weather, oilseed yield madding up 1.14 and 1.40 t ha-1 respectively. Early-maturing crops such as wild cabbage, oilseed camelina and crambe matured by August 21th and had productivities of 1.27; 1.49 and 2.19 t ha-1 respectively. In 2014 wild cabbage, oilseed camelina and crambe reached productivities of 2.60; 0.83 and 1.79 respectively by September 11th under humid cool weather. Rapeseed varieties and hybrids harvested in September 29th produced 2.71 and 2.79 t ha-1 respectively. Humid cool weather was more favorable for rapeseed and wild cabbage and their productivities increased twice while yields of warm-season oilseed camelina and crambe decreased significantly. The fact that wild cabbage matured 18-20 days earlier than rapeseed is very important for the chain development. Wild cabbage should be used along with rapeseed to provide regular input of oilseeds for raw material chain in the Middle Urals.
Keywords: rapeseed, wild cabbage, cruciferous crop, hybrid, row material chain, maturation.
E. A. Savina, A. G. Prudnikova, A. D. Prudnikov Productivity and feed quality of sudangrass and its mixtures with legumes
Success of modern animal husbandry directly depends on the quality of fodder resources. The forage crop range can be expanded by using promising perennial and annual plants. Sudangrass (Sorghum sudanense (Piper) Stapf) is one of them for the Smolensk region. The crop produced 11,8 t ha-1 of dry matter in the Smolensk region by mid-August. Dry matter yield was increased under fertilizing; the significant addition was under applying (NPK)48. Sudangrass mixtures with yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus L.) and with faba beans (Vicia faba L.) provided the maximum crude protein yields — 1124 and 1626 kg/ha respectively. Green mass of sudangrass and its mixtures with legumes was silaged in laboratory. Silage was obtained from sudangrass according to GOST-R-55986-2014 (dry matter content — 33.8 %). By the dry matter content all variants of silage were attributed to the second degree of quality, by the crude protein content — to the first one. Sudangrass forage contained 7.8–9.8 % of crude protein. It varied from 12.0 till 16.1 % in forage mixture of sudangrass with field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and with faba beans, respectively. Thus, the most expediently mixture for the Smolensk region is sudangrass with faba beans. Cultivation this mixture increases crude protein content in forage mass.
Keywords: productivity, sudangrass, mixtures, single-species sowings, legumes.
V. S. Boyko, R. F. Gizatulin, G. E. Akifeva, A. Yu. Timokhin, Kh. Sh. Zhetpisbaeva Cultivation of field beans and their utilizaton in cattle feeding in the South of Western Siberia
УДК: 636.086.3:633.353 (5
The experiment studied effect of different levels of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers on field beans “Sibirskie” in the southern forest steppe of Western Siberia. The trial took place on irrigated chernozem. It included three factors: A — phosphorus fertilizers, B — nitrogen and molybdenum fertilizers and C — background of phosphorus availability (medium, increased and high concentrations). Reference and experimental groups of black-and-white calves were used to evaluate bean nutritional properties. Obtaining 3.5 t seeds ha-1 required high level of soluble phosphorus through fertilization that improved seed productivity by 1 t ha-1. Nitrogen fertilizers (N30 + Mo, N30) were ineffective despite the low concentration of nitrogen in the soil before sowing. High concentration of phosphorus increased protein content up to 33.6 % compared to 31.74 % of the reference unfertilized variant. Feeding calves with field beans provided 4.2 % more digestible protein to the reference group’s diet. Field beans contained 194 g of digestible protein per one feed unit. Using milled beans for cattle feeding (20 % of the concentrate) enhanced nutrient digestibility and resulted in average daily weight gain of 6.4 %. Cost effectiveness made up 320 rubles per head for the period of 4 month.
Keywords: Western Siberia, chernozem, irrigation, field bean, cattle feeding, diet, protein.
T. M. Slobodyanik, N. S. Slobodyanik, G. P. Chepelev Eastern goat’s rue productivity and nutritional value in the Amur region
Insufficient amount of digestible protein in fodder harvested in the Amur region leads to ineffective consumption of more than 25-30 % of forage. Eastern goat’s-rue cultivation is of great interest for high quality bulky feeds’ production. It is a novel crop for the Amur region and some techniques for its cultivation were developed for the first time. Eastern goat’s-rue performed better than hungarian sainfoin and red clover. It provided 36 t green mass ha-1 and 7.6 t DM ha-1 in total for two cuts. Hungarian sainfoin yielded 27 t green mass ha-1 and 6.2 t DM ha-1. Red clover gave 17 t green mass ha-1 and 5.4 t DM ha-1 for one cut. Eastern goat’s-rue seed productivity was 3 times lower compared to hungarian sainfoin; red clover producing no seeds. Unlike red clover eastern goat’s-rue and hungarian sainfoin produced seeds every year. Harvesting them in the beginning of flowering time allowed obtaining two cuts of green and dry mass. Eastern goat’s-rue contained 2-3 times more digestible protein than hungarian sainfoin and red clover. Eastern goat’s-rue accumulated 264-266 g of digestible protein per 1 feed unit surpassing hungarian sainfoin and red clover by 2 times.
Keywords: eastern goat’s-rue, hungarian sainfoin, red clover, productivity, nutritional value, harvesting time
I. P. Takunov, T. N. Slesareva, M. N. Novikov Mixtures of white lupin with spring wheat
White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) has high productive potential. Modern varieties can provide 4–5 t ha-1 of grain with 35–40 % of protein and 8–10 % of oil. But these values are not always feasible on the farm conditions due to high weed infestation with segetal weeds and infection by anthracnose and other lupin’s diseases under sufficient moistening. However, lupin and cereals mixtures provided optimal plant density, and dominated weed plants in phytocenosis till economic threshold of harmfulness; lupin’s resistance to diseases and pests increased. Covering 80 % of the nitrogen requirement symbiotically, lupin provided “soil nitrogen economy effect” in mixture. Thus, without nitrogen fertilizers, a cereal started growing actively, its tilling capacity and competitive activity increased. In our studies, in the variants with seeding rate of 0.8 million of germinable lupin seeds and 3–3.5 million of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seeds, grain mix yield exceeded total yield of these crops in single-species sowings more than twice. We developed the resource-saving technology of producing lupin and spring wheat in mixtures. Without costs for mineral fertilizers, herbicides, and other plant protection products, it allows to double the cropland productivity, to obtain environmentally friendly products with high protein content, while maintaining soil fertility and the environment.
Keywords: white lupin, heterogeneous agrophytocenosis, lupin and cereals sowings, resource-saving technology, productivity transgression.
Genetics, biotechnology, breeding and seed production
L. G. Gorkovenko, N. A. Bedilo, S. I. Osetskiy Biological properties and cultivation practices of Trifolium apertum Bobr. in North-West Caucasus
The paper deals with biological characteristics, cultivation techniques and productivity of Trifolium apertum. Its cultivation allows growing second crops for livestock feeding. Optimal sowing time is from the end of July to the beginning of August. Seeding rate of seed grains is 8-10 kg ha-1, sowing distance — 30 cm; values for feed grains being 12-15 kg ha-1 and 7.5 cm respectively. Period from spring aftergrowing to seed maturation is 135–145 days. Green mass yield makes up 40.0–60.0 t ha-1 in the steppe zone (rainfall is 643 mm) being 80.0 t ha-1 in the piedmont zone (rainfall is 702 mm). In mixture with rapeseed sward productivity reaches 100 t ha-1. Conditioning and biological seed productivities reach 0.8-1.0 and 1.2-1.6 t ha-1 respectively. Hay and haylage prepared using bioconservant “Biovet-zakvaska” belong to the extra quality class. Adding of 10.0 % of clover green mass to feedstuff increases broiler average daily weight by 7 times compared to other legumes. Protein and fiber digestibilities are 62.6 % and 27.8 % respectively. Flowering top extract (1 mg ml-1) reduces free radical content by 87.3 %. Honey yield under the high diastatic number is 200 kg ha-1. The crop has high winter hardiness.
Keywords: Trifolium apertum, productivity, chemical composition, digestibility, nectar yield, raw materials for medical preparation production
Technologies of laying-in, storage and usage of fodder
Yu. A. Pobednov, I. V. Kuchin, V. V. Soldatova Competitive effectiveness of haylage making and ensiling wilted gramineous by preparations of lactic-acid bacteria
Since haylage and silage are widely used in a cattle diet it is important to maintain their quality and ensure feed good storage. The experiment studied haylage making, conventional ensiling and preparing silage from wilted gramineous such as common timothy and annual ryegrass by “Biotrof” treatment; sugar-to-buffer ratio varying. Laboratory test determined main biochemical characteristics of fodder quality. DM digestibility, energy content and productive effect of experimental feeds were tested on wethers and calves. Silage treated by preparation had the best quality. Nutrient decomposition was 1.5–4.3 times higher in conventional silage. Making haylage with high sugar content promoted further sugar accumulation in DM through “anaerobic autolysis” reducing forage quality 1.5 months later. Haylage and silage treated by “Biotrof” had similar DM digestibilities and exchange energy contents of 9.3 and 9.4 MJ kg-1 respectively. Feeds studied showed similar productive effect. However silage quality fermented by “Biotrof” remained stable during the experiment while haylage quality decreased 1.5 months later. Mature cattle require more haylage and silage thus reducing haylage productive effect is expected to be more significant. Haylage conservation is recommended to be done for large farms only. Otherwise ensiling by “Biotrof” or analogous preparations would be preferably.
Keywords: haylage, silage, haylage making, ensiling, conservation, “Biotrof”, aerobic soil, secondary fermentation
E. A. Yyldyrym, L. A. Ilina, V. A. Filippova, V. V. Soldatova, I. N. Nikonov, G. Yu. Laptev, O. V. Sokolova, N. I. Novikova Studying silage mycotoxins and developing strategy to control them
The research analyzed concentrations of aflatoxins, ochratoxin-A, T-2 toxin, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol in silage and swards of Russian livestock farms. ELISA was applied to test 68 sward samples from 11 livestock farms of the Leningrad region and 215 silage samples from 20 farms of the Leningrad, Moscow, Yaroslavl, Kirov, Voronezh and Lipetsk region, Republic of Mordovia, Yakutia and Krasnodar Territory, etc. Almost all silage and sward samples exceeded the maximum permissible concentrations of mycotoxins. Silage from the Central Chernozem region was highly contaminated by mycotoxins. Silage from the Republic of Yakutia showed the lowest mycotoxin concentration. Sward from the Leningrad region contained the highest amount of mycotoxins. Conventional differentiation of micromycetes was complicated by the presence of mycotoxins of storage fungi in growing crops. Applying mycotoxin sorbent “Zaslon” into the fodder of milking cows increased daily average milk yield by 1.4 l compared to the reference variant; fat and protein content rising in milk. “Zaslon” reduced aflatoxin-M1 concentration in milk by 37.2 % compared to the reference group. Molecular method T-RFLP showed that “Zaslon” affected positively the concentration of beneficial microflora of cow rumen (bacilli and bifidobacteria). It also provided decline in amount of pathogenic clostridia and fusobacteria.
Keywords: mycotoxin, “BIOTROF”, ELISA, silage, sward, mycotoxin sorbent, “Zaslon”.
I.A. Vysotskiy Rye silage — an optimal forage for high yielding cows’ diet
Currently many regions of North Europe cultivate hybrid rye. Rye is becoming more common in other countries due to its high yield, flexible sowing time, tolerance to different soil conditions and earliness. Optimal cuttng time is one of the most important parameters affecting green mass and silage quality and nutritional value. Warm and dry weather conditions lead to rye overgrowth, reducing its nutritional value but, at the same time, increasing green mass yield. To produce silage of the best quality winter rye should be cut before the heading time. Otherwise very fast lignification occurs, lowering net energy of lactation (NEL) down to 4.5–5.0 MJ. However, silage yield rises up to 30 t ha-1. SUch a silage made of overgrown rye is not the best fodder for high-yielding dairy cows, but it can be fed to replacements or dry cows. Rye silage of early cut showing high level of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility, Net Energy of lactation and crude protein is one of the most valuable ingredients of diet made for high-yielding (milk yield of 9000-10000 kg) or fresh cows. These groups of animals require sufficient amount of digestible structural fiber but without significant acid load for a rumen.
Keywords: rye, silage, neutral detergent fiber, net energy of lactation.