Economics, management, organization and law in forage production
N. N. Zezin, N. V. Maltsev Forage production scientific support in the Ural Federal District
The paper explains the significance of the sphere development to meet the requirements of current forage production and dairy farming. In 2010-2014 scientists of the Research Institute bred and enlisted 13 varieties into the State Register; 23 varieties of grain crops, potato and perennial grasses were presented for the State Variety Trial. Among wheat varieties bred in the Urals it is necessary to mention “Iren” occupying 600 thousands ha and novel bread wheat variety “Ekaterina” producing yield of 7.0 t ha-1. Potential productivity of barley “Pamyati Chepeleva” exceeded 8.0 t ha-1 surpassing standard varieties by 10- 25 % in the Kirov, Sverdlovsk, Nizhny Novgorod and Perm regions, Mari El Republic, Chuvashia and Udmurtia. Novel oats’ varieties “Atlet” and “Uralets” yielded over 6.0 t ha-1. Pea varieties “Krasnoufimskiy-11”, “Altyn” and “Edem” provided yields of 2.4, 2.9 and 3.2 t ha-1 respectively. Potential productivity of winter rye “Yantarnaya” was 6.0–7.0 t ha-1. Haylage making includes utilization of highly productive varieties of double-cut red clover “Drakon” and “Dobryak”, one-cut red clover — “Oreon”, “Orfey” and “Oniks”, bastard alfalfa — “Sarga”, “Uralochka” and “Viktoriya”. They all produced 40.0-45.0 t ha-1 of green mass or up to 10.0 t ha-1 of absolute DM.
Keywords: concept, dairy farming, forage production, breeding, seed production, variety, productivity, efficiency, Joint Use Center, seed-production cluster
Grassland science and management
N. G. Lapenko, V. A. Druzhinin, L. V. Dudchenko Natural forage lands of the Northeastern Stavropol region
УДК: 633.2.03 (470.63)
The paper deals with the geobotanical examination of natural forage lands in the Northeastern Stavropol region (the Arzgirskiy, Apanasenkovskiy, Ipatovskiy, Turkmenskiy districts). Natural swards varied in forage reserves and its quality. Virgin steppe sward included Festuca rupicola, Festuca valesiaca, Koeleria cristata etc. Gramineous occupied 21.7-40.9 % (Cop1–Cop3 — abundance indices) of the area tested (100 m²). Aboveground mass yield made up 1.2–2.6 t ha-1 of hay. Natural flora of the dry steppe was constantly used by farms. It produced 0.2–0.4 t ha-1 of hay. Sward included species Artemisia austriaca and Achillea (biebersteinii, nobilis). Significant proportion of ungrazed plants such as Conyza canadensis, Convolvulus arvensis, Medicago minima, Galium humifusum etc. amounted to 30–50 %. Using pastures for cattle grazing must involve pasture rotation as one of the conditions for natural sward efficient utilization and longevity. It provides cattle and sheep with required amount of green fodder. It is necessary to restore degraded forage lands by cultivating gramineous, legumes and other valuable forage crops. Agrosteppe method can be used for sward restoration. Incidentally preserved steppe fragments can provide seed material and perform as a source of grass mixtures to restore degraded lands in the future.
Keywords: antropogenic factor, degraded sward, pasture, virgin steppe, forage land, plant resources.
T. V. Shaykova, V. S. Baeva, T. E. Kuzmina Festulolium forage productivity as affected by microbiological preparations in the Pskov region
The paper presents the three-year data on festulolium feed mass yield and quality infl uenced by microbiological preparations (MBP) “Azorizin”, “Mobilin” and “Flavobakterin” regarding sowing time in the Pskov region. High festulolium productivity occured in the first two years of cultivation but it decreased in the third year. DM yield made up 7.3…9.6 and 9.2…11.7 t ha-1 in the first and second years respectively being especially low in the third year — 3.1…4.0 t ha-1. Festulolium as monoculture performs good for three years; its further cultivation must include combination with perennial grasses or reseeding. MBP provided increase in crude protein content: the first sowing time — 0.11…0.16 t ha-1, the second one — 0.03…0.07 t ha-1, the third one — 0.05…0.15 t ha-1. Festulolium feed mass decline in the third year resulted in reduced crude protein yield of 0.30…0.45 t ha-1. Early sowing accompanied by MPB application led to exchange energy increase from 3.2 to 7.2 GJ; the maximum value being obtained under “Azorizin” use. Additionally MBP provided 0.44…0.69 t ha-1 of feed units on the average. “Azorizin” allowed obtaining the highest increase of feed units under the first sowing time of festulolium.
Keywords: festulolium, microbiological preparation, sowing time, productivity, crude protein, energy quality parameters.
Crop production and arable farming
S. I. Kokonov, O. A. Stradina, N. I. Mazunina fficiency of forage millet mineral fertilization
The paper deals with the two-year investigation of forage millet (Panicum miliaceum) response to mineral fertilization in the Middle Cis-Ural region. Experiments took place on “Uchkhoz Iyulskoe IzhGSKhA”, JSC. Sod-podzolic clay loam of the trial field contained 2.1 % of humus and high concentrations of soluble phosphorus and exchange potassium. There were eight variants: 1) unfertilized (reference); 2) N20P10K10; 3) N40P20K20; 4) N50P25K25; 5) N60P30K30; 6) N80P40K40; 7) N80P40K80; 8) N80P40K100. Seeding rate made up 4.5 million pcs. ha-1 of germinated seeds. Applying N20P10K10 before presowing cultivation resulted in 2.70 t DM ha-1 which amounted to 108 % of the productivity planned. Variety “Udaloe” had strong positive correlation between productivity and plant number before harvesting (r = 0.88), productivity and 1 plant weight (r = 0.84), productivity and plant height (r = 0.82). Crude protein content increased from 14.2 % for the reference variant to 15.1–16.6 % for fertilized variants. The highest payback (67.5 kg of DM per 1 kg of mineral fertilizer) happened on the background of N20P10K10; fertilizer prime cost being relatively low — 2 692 rubles per thousand of feed units. Increasing fertilizer rates reduced the payback by 37.2–52.5 kg of DM per 1 kg of mineral fertilizers.
Keywords: millet, fodder nutritional value, mineral fertilizer efficiency.
G. V. Blagoveshchenskiy, V. D. Shtyrkhunov, V. V. KonanchukGrasses and forage crops as potential sources of energy and protein
The article deals with the formation and utilization of highly effective and low-cost agrocenoses that include combination of plants showing symbiotic nitrogen and C4 carbon fixation. Perennial grasses usually produce up to 10–14 t DM ha-1 under the conditions of moderate continental climate in Russia. In the northern regions the productivity of red clover and alfalfa is 15 % lower than mean values while in the central and southern ones it exceeds mean values by 15 %. Legume-bluegrass agrocenoses generally yield 10 % better than legumes. Bluegrass productivity is similar to or 15–20 % higher than that of legume-bluegrass mixture. Applying 180–240 kg ha-1 of nitrogen fertilizers provides the maximum bluegrass productivity; nonrenewable energy consumption being 1.5–2.5 times higher compared to legume mixtures with bluegrass. Ecological intensification of agriculture is based on forming agrocenoses both for cuttng and grazing composed of crops fixing symbiotic nitrogen. Cuttng swards improves their productivity by 8–15 % compared to grazed crops. Yield capacity of nitrogen-fixing plants’ agrocenoses allow obtaining 12–13 thousands kg ha-1 of milk both under sward cuttng and grazing.
Keywords: productivity, agroecosystem of legumes and bluegrass, symbiotic nitrogen fixation, protein, energy, feed intake, potential productivity, control.
Genetics, biotechnology, breeding and seed production
T. V. Naumova, A. N. Emelyanov Timothy productivity in the Primorye region
The paper deals with the three-year investigation of timothy varieties in the Primorye region. The research took place on the trial fields of Primorye Research Institute of Agriculture in the period from 2011 to 2014. Promising timothy germplasm was studied to be used in new intensive varieties’ development. The experiment detected varieties having economically important traits which can be introduced into plants to tolerate various abiotic conditions. The plot of 1.8 m2 characterized by meadow brown clay loam soil consisted of two rows. One row was used in measuring green mass and hay productivity. Another one provided the information on seed productivity. The collection included 43 lines obtained from VIR, accessions from other Research Institutes and the local ones. The lines had different geographical origin (Siberia, Far East, Europe and America). “Primorskaya mestnaya” was used as a reference variety. The research evaluated plant winter hardiness, green mass, hay and seed productivity, hay chemical composition and nutritional value. Promising germplasm was defined to be used in further breeding experiments. Such genotypes as “k-41772 Yeorqikon” (Hungary), “k-47725 Alexander” (Sweden), “Morshanskaya 69” (the Tambov region), “Kamalinskaya 96” (the Krasnoyarsk region) were superior for the number of economically important traits.
Keywords: plant breeding, perennial gramineous, timothy, variety, green mass and hay productivities, seed, protein, carotene.
N. G. Loskutov Perennial ryegrass productivity depending on sowing time
The paper presents the results on four-year competitive testing of economic and biological productivity of perennial ryegrass in the first year of cultivation regarding different sowing time. Investigation of seed productivity of perennial ryegrass varieties bred in Russia took place on Perm Research Institute of Agriculture in the period from 2009 to 2014. Field trial included spring (the second decade of May) and summer (the second decade of June) sowing. The objects of the research were such varieties of perennial ryegrass as “Tsna”, “Karat”, “VIK 66” and “Malysh”. The research also analyzed variety yield structure. Sod-podzolic heavy clay loam soil of the trial field was characterized by low humus content and significant amount of soluble phosphorus and exchange potassium. The competitive testing showed that among the all varieties sown in spring “Tsna” had the best biological and economic productivity of 1.47 and 0.82 t ha-1 respectively on the average. Summer sowing provided the highest yield for “VIK 66” and “Tsna. Other varieties yielded insignificantly less. Economic productivity was revealed to be higher for varieties sown in spring than for those sown in summer. According to the results obtained perennial ryegrass can be successfully cultivated in the Perm region.
Keywords: gramineous, perennial ryegrass, variety, productivity, sowing time
F. I. Privalov, D. V. Luzhinskiy, N. F. Nadtochaev The importance of maize in Belarus forage production and principles of choosing hybrids
The mass introduction of maize hybrids in the second part of the last century largely determined the growth in acreage and crop yields in the world. For Belarus, the climate warming played an important role; it earlier was the limiting factor for cultivating maize for grain. Only fi
Keywords: maize, hybrid, maturity group, acreage, productivity, sum of effective temperatures.
O. B. Batakova A new flexible cultivar of spring barley for European North of Russia
УДК: 633.16 : 631.52
Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is a universal crop both in areas for cultivation and for use. Barley grain is the valuable stock for producing concentrated feedstuff. Using new cultivars provides an important contribution to increasing productivity in the modern plant science. The article presents the description of the new cultivar of spring barley ‘Tausen’ created in the FSUE ‘Kotlasskoye’ by intraspecific hybridization followed by single plant selection. The cultivar ‘Tausen’ was tested in the competitive field trial in 2005–2010, the cultivar ‘Dina’ was the standard. Agrometeorological conditions were significantly different during research. In six-year average the new cultivar produced 4.6 t ha-1 grain which was more than the standard by 19 %. High effective tilling capacity, well-grained spike, advanced root system provided such addition. Protein content in grain was as the standard’s — by 11.2 %. Primary benefits of the new cultivar are persistency to stress factors, flexibility, high productivity, and early maturation. The cultivar is low-susceptible to smut fungi, middle-susceptible to spottng, high resistant to lodging. Spikes slightly droop. The cultivar ‘Tausen’ was tested in the farm trial in the FSUE ‘Kotlasskoye’ in 2007, 2009, 2010. Using the new cultivar will increase economical efficiency of spring barley cultivation by 12.1 %. The cultivar ‘Tausen’ was included in the State Register of Breeding Achievements since 2014 and it was admitted for cultivating in the North region of Russia.
Keywords: cultivar, resistance, flexibility, productivity, effective tilling capacity, grain content in spike, farm trial.
International Scientific Conference “Ways improving competitiveness of domestic varieties, seeds, planting material and technologies in the world market”
Aspects of forage utilization
A. D. Kapsamun, V. P. Degtyarev, E. N. Pavlyuchik, N. N. Ivanov, K. S. Yuldashev, T. N. Panteleeva Mineral retention in cows as influenced by feeding silage made from eastern goat’s-rue, red clover and their mixtures
The research analyzed cow macronutrients’ and micronutrients’ intake from fodder and water, level of their excretion and content in milk. Three analogue groups were formed each consisting of three milking cows. Winter cow feeding was conducted in the shed. The reference group consumed silage made from red clover “Ranniy 2”, the 1st experimental group – from eastern goat’s-rue “Gale” and the 2nd one – from legume mixtures with grasses. Cows from all groups additionally had 100 g of NaCl and 0.3 kg of barley bran daily. Cow keeping conditions met the requirements of the Zootechnical Standards being similar for all groups. Eastern goat’s-rue accumulated more biologically active nutrients compared to red clover favouring the organic matter assimilation in plants and animals. Feeding cows with silage prepared from eastern goat’s-rue resulted in absorption of zinc, cobalt, iodine and copper in the amount of 4/5. Micronutrient concentration was maintained in cow blood within the maximum permissible level despite the possible season and feeding effect. With the exception of copper and cobalt cows showed no significant differences in blood micronutrients’ content among all groups.
Keywords: eastern goat’s-rue, red clover, macronutrient, micronutrient, retention, absorption.
V. G. Kosolapova, A. I. Artemenkova, L. A. Truzina Chemical composition and nutrient digestibility of eastern goat’s-rue in the first cut.
Knowing nutrient content variation in plant green mass allows defining optimal harvesting time for forage crops. The research dealt with eastern goat’s-rue chemical composition and nutritional value of the first cut measured in the period from shooting to flowering considering structural carbohydrates’ content. Content of DM increased from 15.1 to 20.6 %, crude fiber — from 22.4 to 34.2 % while crude protein concentration dropped from 27.55 to 19.1 %. Nutrient content significantly varied from the beginning of bud formation till the full budding. From shooting till flowering structural carbohydrates’ concentration rose by 5.1–11.2 %. The highest value variation occurred from the beginning of budding till the full budding: for neutral detergent fiber (NDF) it amounted to 3.5 %, for acid detergent fiber (ADF) — 4.3 %, for lignin — 1.5 %, for fiber — 3.2 %. Nutrient digestibility declined during the growing season. The flowering stage showed NDF digestibility decrease of 21.3 % compared to the shooting stage. Protein digestibility remained fairly high during the growing season and made up 72.6-79.5 %. Exchange energy content dropped from 9.8 MJ to 8.5 MJ. Optimal harvesting time for eastern goat’s-rue of the first cut was determined to be the beginning of bud formation.
Keywords: eastern goat’s-rue, harvesting stage, vegetative stage, chemical composition, crude protein, structural carbohydrate, nutrient digestibility, energy content.