Economics, management, organization and law in forage production
V. V. Kulintsev, L. R. Oganyan Animal husbandry in the Stavropol region
Grassland science and management
V. F. Kazarin, A. A. Kuryanovich, I. A. Volodina Alfalfa drought resistance evaluation in the Volga region using susceptibility index
Methods on alfalfa variety drought-resistance evaluation at different stages of breeding process were analyzed to use the results obtained for further investigations. The experiment provided data on alfalfa green mass and seed productivity as well as revealed drought-tolerant alfalfa varieties characterized by high feed and seed productivity. The Fisher equation was used to determine crop resistance to drought. The statistical analysis showed strong negative correlation between the drought susceptibility index, green mass and seed productivity of the varieties studied. The drought susceptibility index defines field drought-resistance of alfalfa varieties with a high reliability. Two cycles of competitive variety trial indicated that such varieties as “Bioti-1”, “Gyuzel SP-03”, “Populyatsiya-4” and “Tatarskaya pastbishchnaya No. 99” survived drought the best. The given index can be used for plant breeding to obtain highly productive drought-resistant alfalfa varieties in the conditions of the Middle Volga region.
Keywords: alfalfa, fodder, climate aridization, drought susceptibility index.
D. A. Ivanov, V. A. Tyulin, M. V. Rublyuk, O. V. Karaseva, S. V. Nechaev Perrenial grasses’ productivity and fodder quality dynamics in space and time within the agrolandscape
УДК: 633.11 (321):631.86
The long-term monitoring provided the data on perennial grasses’ productivity and forage quality obtained from the trial fields of the All-Russian Research Institute of Meliorated Lands. Methodical specifics of the experiment allowed analyzing landscape’s (relief, soil types) and agroclimatic conditions’ effect on multiple-aged swards’ productivity and concentration of crude protein, fat, minerals, fiber and nitrogen-free extractives. The research took place on the agroecological transect which was the path crossing all field microlandscapes. Sward characteristics, agroclimatic conditions and agrolandscape features greatly affected feed quality. Sward parameters and landscape conditions varied causing hay quality transformation. Sward botanical composition influenced fodder quality, main components’ content and their annual variation. Sward type changed correlation number between hay yield parameters. Increasing sward life cycle reduced hay yield dynamics in space and time and changed locations of swards showing similar fodder characteristics within the agrolandscape. Microlandscape conditions noticeably affected variability in hay yield and quality. Maximal variation coefficients were estimated for quantitative and qualitative parameters of grasses mainly grown on eluvial soils of landscape upper areas. Practical application of the data obtained is able to optimize hay qualitative composition by growing swards on particular areas within the agrolandscape.
Keywords: monitoring, transect, sward, hay quality.
Crop production and arable farming
V. I. Turusov, I. M. Kornilov Resource-saving technologies in oat cultivation
УДК: 631.51: 633.13
The elements of oat (Avena sativa L.) cultivation technology were investigated in the Voronezh region. The possibilities to increase crop productivity and reduce energy demands for cultivation were found. Increasing oat yields exacts high cultivation value, applying fertilizers, weed, pest, and disease control. Our aim was to select the most promising oat cultivation technologies for south-east of the Central Chernozem Zone. Influence of the basic farming elements (tillage, fertilization) on the soil physical properties and oat yields was studied on typical chernozem. The climate in the Voronezh region is unstable by precipitation amount and air temperature. Favourable years alternate with dry and heavy-drought ones. Thus, crop cultivation technologies should be aimed at the accumulation, preservation and economical use of soil moisture by plants. Plant density reduced by 11.0 % under spring chiseling against the accepted cultivation. Surface tillage for oat influenced soil hardness insignificantly. The soil was loose during the growing period in the all variants. Weediness increased 1.4–1.5 times under spring plowing and subsoil tillage. The yield decreased by 14.5–18.0 % under autumn or spring subsoil tillage against the accepted cultivation (2.0 t ha-1).
Keywords: oat, tillage, elements of technology, energy demands.
Z. I. Usanova, A. S. Vasilev The foliar application influence on oat productivity in the Upper Volga region
It is necessary to elaborate new methods influencing production process to switch to resource-saving and environmentally safe technologies for cultivating cereals, including oat (Avena sativa L.). One of them is a seed and plant treatment by growth promoting preparations whose efficiency varies under different environmental conditions. We studied the influence of foliar applications on the oat productivity using complex micronutrients (‘Akvadon-Micro’) and bacterial (‘Azotofosfin’) fertilizers under no mineral fertilization or seedling topdressing by N45. Studies were carried out in 2010–2012 in the polyfactorial field trial on the sod-podzolic well-cultivated soil. At the 23th (tillering) or 33th (stem elongation) BBCH development stages, foliar application improved feed and processing grain qualities, and provided additional yield significantly: unfertilized — by 0.44–0.47 t ha-1 (22.7–24.2 %), with N45 — by 0.43–0.44 t ha-1 (16.2–16.6 %). The nitrogen fertilization increased productivity by 0.70 t ha-1 or 31.2 %, crude protein content — by 1.23 %, and it reduced hull content. The time of topdressing affected the traits insignificantly. The plant productivity increased due to optimizing photosynthetic activity and yield structure, proving the expediency of applying the growth promoting preparations ‘Akvadon-Micro’ and ‘Azotofosfin’ to oat cultivation in the Upper Volga region.
Keywords: oat, foliar application, ‘Akvadon-Micro’, ‘Azotofosfin’, production process, photosynthetic activity.
S. A. Ignatev, I. M. Chesnokov, T. V. Gryazeva, N. G. Ignateva Fodder productivity of the alfalfa varieties in the Rostov region
New alfalfa varieties “Lyutsiya” (2010) and “Selyanka” (2013) were obtained in the All-Russian Grain Crop Research Institute to be cut in field, fodder and by-farm crop rotations under dryland conditions. “Lyutsiya” and “Selyanka” produced green mass significantly better than standard variety “Rostovskaya-90” in the first and second cut. Total productivities for two cuts reached 39.7, 44.27 and 43.0 t ha-1 for “Rostovskaya-90”, “Lyutsiya” and “Selyanka” respectively. “Lyutsiya” and “Selyanka” had higher values for dry mass productivity than “Rostovskaya-90” (11.6 and 11.2 versus 10.4 t ha-1). New varieties surpassed the standard one in feed units by 8.6-10.2 % and 20.3-14.4 % in the first and second cut respectively. They also had the highest crude protein content. For two cuts “Rostovskaya-90”, “Lyutsiya” and “Selyanka” accumulated 1.12-0.48, 1.23-0.57 and 1.20-0.54 t ha-1 of digestible protein. Total increases in digestible protein content achieved 12.5 and 9.4 % for “Lyutsiya” and “Selyanka” respectively for two cuts. “Lyutsiya” contained more digestible protein per 1 feed unit than “Rostovskaya-90” and “Selyanka” (308 versus 295 and 288 g). In the second cut the given characteristic was at the same level for all varieties.
Keywords: alfalfa, variety, productivity, dry matter, protein.
A. V. Zinovev, S. I. Kokonov Maize hybrids’ forage productivity as affected by abiotic conditions in the Middle Cis-Ural region
The paper analyzes abiotic condition effect on maize hybrids of different geographical origin. Currently the maize planted area in the Udmurt Republic amounts to 29 thousands hectares requiring hybrid responses’ test to regional climatic conditions. Breeding short-season and cold-tolerant hybrids involves cultivation technology improvement considering their features. In 2013 planting occurred under mean daily temperature of 19.1°С and soil temperature of 14.5°С favouring good germination 8-9 days a
Keywords: maize, hybrid, productivity, dry matter, exchange energy, feed units, abiotic conditions.
Genetics, biotechnology, breeding and seed production
R. G. Piskovatskaya, A. M. Makaeva, E. V. Tolmacheva The main purposes in Trifolium repens breeding
УДК: 631. 52:633.322
The paper analyzes purposes of Trifolium repens breeding in Russia and abroad. It also presents the most efficient breeding methods for the given crop. One of them is incorporating new unique alleles from germplasm bearing economically important genetic material into crops via hybridization to enhance their winter hardiness and productivity. Analyzing economically important traits in T. repens for four years determined “VIK 70”, “Yubileynyy”, “Gomelskiy” (var. hollandicum) and “Volat” (var. giganteum) to be suitable for crossing. Variety assessment detected the main characteristics defining fodder and seed productivity as well as their correlation. “Volat” was superior in plant height, “Gomelskiy” yielded the best, “Yubileynyy” had the best resistance to drought and grazing and “VIK 70” combined good fodder and seed productivity. Developing new hybrids involved mating elite crops detected among the varieties. F2–F3 hybrids obtained were presented for the competitive variety trial. For two life-cycles they exceeded T. repens in green mass productivity by 11.5–22.5 %, increases in dry mass productivity for the crop and its mixtures being 10.1–22.8 and 11.4–18.6 % respectively. The hybrids had the maximum inflorescence number of 984–1080 pcs m-2 providing high seed productivity of 180–193 kg ha-1.
Keywords: Trifolium repens, breeding, germplasm, morphological features, hybridization, hybrid, productivity, seed productivity, correlation.
E. Z. Shamsutdinova, N. S. Orlovskiy, N. Z. ShamsutdinovGerminative ability of the annual fodder halophyte — Suaeda heterophylla (Kar. et Kir.) as affected by chloride and sulfate salinity
There are around 100 species in the Suaeda genus; 27 of them are common in the CIS. Most species grow under the drought conditions typically in semi-deserts and deserts. One of the promising species for in vitro cultivation is Suaeda heterophylla (Kar. et Kir.) Bunge. It is the annual haloxeromesophilic plant, growing on the salt-flats in Central Asia, the Russian South- East, the Caucasus, Iran and Afghanistan. As arid soils o
Keywords: Suaeda heterophylla, annual halophyte, seed, germinative ability, chloride, sulfate salinity.
N. P. Zinina Screening the forage crop collection in the Arkhangelsk region
УДК: 633.2 (470.11)
The existent assortment of forage crops is deficient in the North-West region of Russia due to environmental conditions. The Federal State Unitary Enterprise ‘Kotlasskoe’ screened the collection of annual and perennial species to select crops with optimal combination of productivity and resistance to extreme northern conditions. 130 species of forage crops were investigated in collection. Mainly there were gramineous (Poaceae sp.) — 40 % of total; legumes (Leguminosae sp.) occupied 32 %, Brassicaceae sp. — 10 %, plants from other families — 18 %. Seeding rates, time, methods and crop tending conformed to zonary cultivation technology for studied crop. Excessive precipitation and lack of insolation are typical for the Arkhangelsk region. Cultivating a number of crops which are not common in the region is promising. They are mallow (Malva L.), bird’s-foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.), white sweet clover (Melilotus albus Medik.), reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.), smooth brome (Bromus inermis Leyss.). Among grazing crops, red fescue (Festuca rubra L.) ‘Galas’, black bent (Agrostis gigantea Roth) ‘Nezhnaya’ and bird’s-foot trefoil ‘Solnyshko’ were well-proven. Creating swards with bastard alfalfa (Medicago varia Martyn) and fodder galega (Galega orientalis Lam.) will lead to more extensive range of legume-grass mixtures, traditionally used under northern conditions. It will also provide livestock with high nutritional feed.
Keywords: collection, forage crop, variety, productivity.