Economics, management, organization and law in forage production
V. A. Soloshenko, V. G. Guglya, I. I. Klimenok, I. M. Maslyukov The 85th anniversary of Siberian Research Design and Technological Institute of Animal Husbandry
Grassland science and management
O. T. Andreeva, L. P. Sidorova, N. Yu. Kharchenko, E. N. KhlebnikovaImprovement of agrocenoses’ productivity for ensiling on the Zabaikalye territory
The main purpose of the agroindustrial complex on the Zabaikalye territory is to provide livestock with complete high-energy fodder. Sowing corn and sunflower in combination with legumes are of great scientific and practical interest. The article presents the results on the productivity of main crops used for ensiling — corn and sunflower — sown either as monoculture or in combination with field pea in the forest-steppe of the Zabaikalye territory. Field trials were conducted on the meal-carbonated meadow-chernozem on the basis of East-Siberian Research Institute of Veterinary Medicine in 2011-2013. Planting mixtures of corn and sunflower with field pea in alternate-rows enabled improving silage agrocenoses’ productivity and quality. It provided the highest yield of feed units (3.6–3.8 t ha-1), digestible protein (424–464 kg ha-1) and exchange energy (4.60–4.70 GJ ha-1). Digestible protein content achieved 118-123 g per feed unit satisfying the Zootechnical Standards. Exchange energy amount made up 10.0 MJ per 1 kg DM.
Keywords: agrocenosis for ensiling, single species, mixed crops, productivity, exchange energy, digestible protein, energy efficiency, feed units, corn, sunflower, pea.
Z. Sh. Shamsutdinov, A. A. Zotov, A. K. Natyrov, Yu. B. Kaminov, N. Z. Shamsutdinov, M. M. Shagaipov, Ch. A. Pyurvenov Establishing agrophytocenoses of dwarf semishrubs and grasses for overgrazed pastures on the natural forage lands in the semi-desert of the Russian Caspian Sea region
The goal of the research was to develop a technology for reestablishing overgrazed forage lands and improving their grazing capacity by dwarf semishrubs’ and grasses’ cultivation in the semi-desert of the Russian Caspian Sea region. The experiment carried out in 2006-2013 in the Republic of Kalmykia deals with analyzing agrophytocenoses on the basis of Kochia prostrata, Camphorosma lessingii, Eurotia Ceratoides, Artemisia lerhiana, Artemisia pauciflora which are common for the given regional conditions. For the 8 years Kochia prostrata yielded the best (2.15 t DM ha-1). Mixture of Kochia prostrata, Artemisia lerhiana and Artemisia pauciflora with ephemera provided the yield increase from 2.68 to 2.90 t ha-1 in their 5th and 7th years of life. It was best suited and more beneficial for establishing perennial pastures, producing 1.25 t DM ha-1 in the first year. For the eight years the given mixture produced on average 2.28 t DM ha-1, 0.78 feed units and 9.3 MJ of exchange energy per 1 kg DM. Kochia prostrata achieved the highest productivity of 2.69–2.92 t DM ha-1 on the 5th and 7th years. Productivities of Camphorosma lessingii, Artemisia pauciflora and Eurotia ceratoides increased 6, 10 and 29 times respectively by the eighth year.
Keywords: dwarf semishrub-grass pasture, establishing, Kochia prostrata, Camphorosma lessingii, Eurotia ceratoides, Artemisia lerhiana, Artemisia pauciflora, the North-Western Caspian Sea region.
Crop production and arable farming
N. T. Chebotarev, A. A. Yudin, G. G. Romanov, I. S. Titova Effect of organic and mineral fertilizers on forage crop productivity and yield quality in crop rotation
Field trial showed high efficiency of organic and mineral fertilizing for potato, perennial and annual grasses cultivated on six plots in fodder crop rotation. The most significant dry matter yield was obtained under 80 t ha-1 of peat-manure compost and full NPK doses. Perennial grasses yielded 6.1 t ha-1 exceeding the reference variant by 85 %. Annual grasses performed 59 % better than the reference variant yielding 3.5 t ha-1. Potato produced 6.2 t ha-1 compared to 5.01 t ha-1 of the reference variant. Fertilization provided increase in potato starch content (2.0 %), grass crude protein (2.5…4.0 %) and fat (1.0…1.5 %). Nitrate content did not exceed the standard. Significant contingent net income counted 106.8 thousands of rubles under profitability of 182 %. Complex fertilizing influenced significantly agrochemical characteristics of moderately cultivated sod-podzolic sandy loam soil. Combined organic and mineral fertilization enhanced soil fertility; peat-manure compost high rates (80 t ha-1) and NPK applied according to nutrient removal being the most effective. Content of humus, soluble phosphorus and potassium increased by 0.6 %, 20 mg kg-1 and 15 mg kg-1 respectively, hydrolytic and exchange acidity reduced by 0.4 pH units and 1.5 mg-eq per 100 g of soil respectively.
Keywords: fodder crop rotation, mineral and organic fertilizers, productivity, chemical composition, forage crop.
Zh. S. Nelyubina, N. I. Kasatkina, A. F. Karimov Lotus corniculatus productivity depending on cover crop in the Middle Cis-Ural region
In 2010-2014 Udmurt Agricultural Research Institute carried out an experiment on the best cover crop detection for Lotus corniculatus. Spring wheat, oats, barley and pea-oat mixture performed as cover crops. Field trial was conducted on sodpodzolic clay loam low-humus soil with high content of soluble phosphorus and exchange potassium and pH close to neutral. Depending on cover crop DM productivity varied from 5.29 to 6.14 t ha-1. L. corniculatus yielded the best (6.14 t ha-1) without covering due to plant stand of 981 and 1092 pcs m-2 in the first and second cut respectively. Analyses revealed medium and high positive correlation between DM yield and stand density (r = 0.51…0.81) in the first and second cut. 1 kg of DM contained 9.37…10.31 MJ of exchange energy, 19.3…25.3 % of crude protein and 0.71-0.86 feed units. On the average L. corniculatus seed productivity made up 183…312 kg ha-1 for the three years being the highest under the absence of covering. Seed germination rate was 63…71 % and the weight of 1000 seeds amounted to 1.03…1.14 g; best quality seeds being obtained from L. corniculatus planted without covering.
Keywords: Lotus corniculatus, cover crop, dry mass, seed, structure, correlation, yield quality.
N. N. Zezin, M. A. Namyatov, V. R. Laptev Promising maize hybrids for silage and grain in the Middle Urals
The article presents the results on dynamics of productivity, dry matter content (DM) in the yield, dry matter and starch content in maize grains depending on hybrid ripening rate and growing season conditions. The first measurement indicated the highest DM yields for “Kubanskiy 101 MV” (42.1 %), “Mashuk 150 MV” (33.6 %) and “Ross 130 MV” (30.6 %). The second one showed increased DM content for all hybrids remaining the highest for “Kubanskiy 101 MV” (56.5 %), “Mashuk 150 MV” (44.0 %) and “Ross 130 MV” (42.6 %). The third and forth measurements determined the highest DM content for “Kubanskiy 101 MV” while other hybrids displayed almost no differences. Summer dry and warm weather provided increase in starch content for all hybrids from 61 % of “Kubanskiy 141 MV” to 71.3 % of “Kubans kiy 101 MV” by the middle of August in 2012-2013. Dynamic analyses of productivity, DM and starch content revealed that hybrids “Nur” and “Ross 130 MV” corresponded to or surpassed the regional widely cultivated ones such as “Katerina SV”, “Obskiy 140 SV”, “Mashuk 150 MV”, “Kubanskiy 101 MV”. Therefore they can be recommended for a large-scale field trial.
Keywords: maize, hybrid, harvesting date, grain, productivity, green mass, dry matter, starch.
M. A. Shchannikova, N. I. Yufereva Grasses and their mixtures for lawns in the Kirov region
УДК: 635 .928
The field experiment on variety studying of Festuca rubra, bluegrass and Lolium perenne was conducted on the basis of Vyat ka State Agricultural Academy in the Kirov region on sod-podzolic soil. The research provided seeding rate analyses for single-species crops and two-component mixtures of F. rubra and bluegrass with complement crops. Natural humidity under low precipitation and high temperature prevented high quality lawn formation in the first year of the experiment. In the second year shoot number increased significantly, infestation reduced and most variants formed good and high quality swards. Two year results emphasized single species swards of L. perenne. Rapid development of this species contributed to the good and high sward quality in the first and second year. F. rubra also formed high quality lawns. Variants of single species crops with medium and reduced seeding rates almost had no difference in sward quality enabling seeding rate decrease. Such varieties of L. perenne as “VIK 66”, “Karat”, “No. 324” (seeding rate of 20 kg ha-1) can be recommended for single species lawns in the Kirov region as well as variety “Sigma” of F. rubra (seeding rate of 75 kg ha-1).
Keywords: lawn, grass mixture, Festuca rubra, Lolium perenne, bluegrass, seeding rate, sward quality.
Genetics, biotechnology, breeding and seed production
A. V. Alabushev, N. A. Kovtunova, E. A. Shishova General trends in sweet sorghum breeding
Sweet sorghum (Sorghum saccharatum (L.) Moench) is the promising crop for grain, silage, forage, haylage and briquettes in arid areas. Our Institute created the cultivars ‘Zernogradsky yantar’, ‘Debyut’, ‘Listvenit’ and registered them in the State Register of breeding achievements. The hybrid ‘Elisey’ was tested successfully. The cultivars produce on average 30–35 t ha-1 of green mass for silage, 11.5–12.5 t ha-1 of dry matter, the hybrid — 50–55 and 16.0–17.0 t ha-1 respectively. They show high foliage, an intensive growth, simultaneous grain maturation in panicle, and lodge-resistance. Stems contain 13–16 % of sugar. During the competitive trial the four cultivars and the four hybrids provided 38–39 and 49–53 t ha-1 of green mass, 13.1–15.0 and 17.5–18.9 t ha-1 of dry matter respectively. The cultivar ‘Kormovoe’ and the hybrid ‘Dubler’ had the best economic-valuable traits. The crop was always used for feed. The plant sop sugars (20–25 % content) were found suitable for food and confectionery industry lately. The sources of this trait (‘К–4569’ (22 % of sugar), ‘К–6418’ (20), ‘К–470’ (19.8) and ‘К–3859’ (19.2 %)) were found and have been crossed with highly productive cultivars.
Keywords: sorghum, productivity, feed, green mass, sugar, cultivar, plant breeding.
S. V. Bulyntsev, K. M. Telikh Faba beans breeding in the Tula region
Faba beans (Vicia faba L.) is a valuable vegetable, feed and green manure crop. New faba beans cultivars must show early- ripening in Russia, high seed productivity, indehiscent pod. They must feature high protein content in seeds, absence or reduced content of the antinutrients: tannins, vicin and convicin. In the Forage Production department of Tula Agricultural Research Institute several breeding lines of vegetable and feed faba beans were studied in 2010–2014. They were selected by the results of the long-term research in the department of Leguminous Crops Genetic Resources of VIR. Two faba beans breeding lines, ‘LB–69’ and ‘LB–71’, are promising for cultivating in the Tula region for a number valuable traits. After the triennial state variety trial the breeding line ‘LB–69’, named ‘Anna’, was included in the State Register of breeding achievements in 2013; priority date 26.12.2011. Its’ potential productivity is 4.5–5.0 t ha-1. The cultivar features high tastiness, early maturing, high seed productivity, indehiscent pod and low antinutrients content. The breeding line ‘LB–71’ shows persistently high seed productivity, lodge-resistance, absence of the antinutrients in seeds, possibility for mechanized harvesting. It is suitable both for feed and food usage.
Keywords: faba beans, cultivar, breeding line, seed productivity, growing season.
TECHNOLOGIES OF LAYING–IN, STORAGE AND USAGE OF FODDER
P. A. Fomenko, S. E. Tyapugin Haylage quality in the Vologda region
Haylage is a fodder type combining silage and hay qualities: it contains more dry matted, digestible protein and carotene compared to silage; green mass losses during the laying-in due to plant mechanical damage being less than that of hay. Haylage quality is directly dependent on proper laying-in technology: correct sward cuttng date choice according to its botanical composition, green mass wilting up to 40-55 % of moisture content, timely pittng, good rammer and mass covering to prevent oxygen entry. In the period of 2010-2014 haylage quality in dynamics has been analyzed in the Vologda region. Perennial grass-legume, perennial legume-grass, perennial grass and annual grass haylages were analyzed. Haylage quality was marked to get improved. For the five years low-grade fodder proportion decreased from 58.8 to 32.3 % facilitated by different preserving agents usage for haylage preparation. Perennial legume-grass haylage quality was the least stable. During the all years of the research low-grade fodder proportion for this particular haylage type made up 43.6-72.5 %. Precipitation amount exceeded long-term average annual values preventing good green mass wilting with legume prevalence. Also haylage feeding value was detected to increase associated with sward botanical composition.
Keywords: haylage, haylage preparation, fodder grade, fodder quality, butyric acid, feeding value, preserving agent.
N. I. Kapustin, O. V. Chukhina, A. I. Demidova Effectiveness of grass adding to the mass of dump rolled grain stored under hermetic conditions
The main method of forage grain storage with excessive moisture content is drying associated with high material, energy and labor costs. Besides most animal species eat moist grain better which digestibility is higher than that of dry grain. Recently the storage of moist rolled grain under hermetic conditions began to be used at farms. To accelerate anaerobic condition development as well as to reduce nutrient losses for respiration the effectiveness of adding the fresh milled grass characterized by high respiratory rate to the grain mass was studied. The research took place on Vologda State Dairy Farming Academy named after N. V. Vereshchagin. Grass adding resulted in the reduction of anaerobic condition development period up to 2-3 days; dry matter losses being less than 1.5…2.5 %. The optimal dose of grass adding made up 3 % of grain weight. Under the dose given dry matter losses reached 4.8 % for 30 days of storage compared to losses of 11.3 % in the grain mass without grass. Milled grass adding is the effective tool for anaerobic condition development acceleration in the grain mass and dry matter loss reduction during storage.
Keywords: grain rolling, respiratory rate, palatability, hermetic condition.