Grassland science and management
D. M. Teberdiev, A. V. Rodionova Efficacy of fertilizing a long-term hayfield
The productive longevity of long-term grasslands’ was studied while maintaining the valuable species composition by fertilization. Pastures dominated by shortgrasses (Festuca rubra, bluegrass) were formed under zero or low rates of mineral and organic fertilizers. The swards’ productivity was 3.1 t ha-1 DM under fertilizers’ absence, being up to 6.2 t ha-1 DM under N60PK. The hayfield dominated by tall-growing grasses (meadow foxtail, meadow fescue, cocksfoot, smooth brome) persisted at N doses above 90 kg ha-1. The sward productivity for the last 21 years exceeded 6.2 t ha-1 DM or 63 GJ of exchange energy and 846 kg ha-1 of crude protein on average. 1 kg of mineral fertilizers for the retrogressive succession was paid back by 115–119 GJ of exchange energy and 1.3– 3.2 kg of crude protein. The payback of the progressive succession background was 101–180 GJ of exchange energy and 1.7–2.7 kg of crude protein. The highest plant biodiversity was observed in the retrogressive succession. The sward’s total projective cover reached 66–84 %; under the progressive succession it made up to 88–93 %. For the 67 years of utilization the sustainable phytocenoses provided high-quality fodder on the background of mineral and organic fertilization.
Keywords: sward, hayfield, crop yield, botanical composition, productivity, fertilizer, agrophytocenosis.
V. K. Kuznetsov, V. P. Grunskaya, V. V. Kolomeychenko Hayfields’ and Pastures’ Improvement on the radioactively contaminated slopes
Due to the Chernobyl accident many hayfields and pastures became a source of 137Cs for human organism through the animal products. Since radionuclides can be included in different erosion processes determining their particular characteristics it is important to plan land restoring measures. The research aimed to analyze agrotechnical and agrochemical measures’ effect on productivity improvement and 37Cs concentration decrease in the grass yield in the Tula region. Relief features of western slopes as the research objects varied in chernozem erosion degree and characterized by 137Cs contamination of 200-245 kBq m-1. Agrochemical measures’ influence on yield increase and 137Cs concentration reduction in plants differed depending on the relief features, fertilization method and sward harvesting time. Applying N90Р60К60 provided rise in green mass yield of 13.2 t ha-1 compared to the control variant; spring split fertilization after the first cut being more effective than the single-shot one. Topdressing with mineral fertilizers led to their washout to the underlying relief features and 137Cs concentration increase (maximum 2.8 fold) in the sward of the second cut. Subsoil and split fertilization had no significant effect on 137Cs accumulation in plants. Split fertilization favored low 137Cs accumulation in plants in comparison with the singleshot one.
Keywords: ravine system, radionuclide, mineral fertilizer, restoring.
Crop production and arable farming
O. T. Andreeva, L. P. Sidorova, N. Yu. Kharchenko, E. N. KhlebnikovaPerspectives of legume crop cultivation for fodder production on the zabaikalye territory
The availability of high quality fodder, especially protein, greatly affects the livestock productivity. Field pea and beans are legumes forming feeds with protein content fulfilling requirements of the Zootechnical Standards. The present article deals with the legume crop productivity’s investigation in the forest-steppe of the Zabaikalye Territory. Such legume crops as field pea and beans were analyzed regarding the acclimatization to cultivation conditions and economically important traits (yield capacity, feed quality and resistance to drought, lodging, pests and diseases) to develop highly productive agrobiocenoses providing stable production of high-energy forage. It was established that field beans and pea had the similar productivity of dry ma
Keywords: legume, productivity, yield capacity, quality, fodder, acclimatization, resistance
I. M. Shatskiy, V. N. Zolotarev, A. V. Ponomarenko Mineral fertilizers’ effect on smooth brome productivity in the Central Chernozem region
УДК: 633.262 : 631.531.82
The research analyzed mineral fertilizer influence on seed sward structure and smooth brome productivity “Voronezhskiy 17” in the southern steppe of the Central Chernozem region. Applying Р60К60 in autumn increased shortened shoots’ number by 10–20 % and their winter hardiness – by 8 %. Number of generative shoots raised by 42 %, flowers and seeds – by 4-5 %; seed productivity improving by 44 % compared to the control variant. Fertilizing first-year swards by 30–90 kg ha-1 of ammonium nitrate active material on the background of Р60К60 in spring increased number of generative shoots by 65-77 %, flowers and seeds – by 10–14 and 8–12 % respectively and inflorescence length – by 7–8 % compared to the control variant. Smooth brome seed productivity became 1.7– 1.9 times higher. Applying phosphorus and potassium fertilizers intensified autumn shoot formation by 11–16 % and shoot winter hardiness – by 43 %. Seed yield increase reached 56 %. Number of shoots and seeds rose by 42– 51 % and 17–25 % respectively due to the second-year sward fertilization by nitrogen in spring. 30–60 kg ha-1 of ammonium nitrate active material provided seed yield increase of 67–73 % compared to the control variant.
Keywords: smooth brome, mineral fertilizer, productivity, seed.
Genetics, biotechnology, breeding and seed production
Kh. A. Piskunova, A. V. Fedorova Spring triticale in the Kostroma region
Despite many valuable characteristics spring triticale has not been spread yet in the Kostroma region. Spring triticale grain has significant advantageous over spring crops. Varieties “Amigo”, “Grebeshok”, “Rovnya”, “Pamyat”, “Merezhko”, “Karmen” and “Normann” were bred for the Nonchernozem belt. “Grebeshok”, “Amigo” and “Normann” were enlisted in the State Register for Breeding Achievements. According to the data from Russian Agricultural Center Branch in the Kostroma region spring triticale wasn’t cultivated during 2012-2014. Therefore the research was dedicated to the analysis of varieties and triticale effective cultivation possibility. The objective was to identify varieties providing high grain yield, feed unit output and product quality. On the base of the results for 2013-2014 the data on six forementioned triticale varieties compared to the yield of spring wheat “Ester” (reference variant) was obtained. “Normann” and “Rovnya” provided the highest yield of 2.76 and 2.42 t ha-1 respectively. Yield increase was 0.46 and 0.41 t ha-1 respectively. In 2014 “Karmen” and “Grebeshok” also showed statistically significant yield increases of 2.43 and 2.80 t ha-1. Digestible protein and feed unit content in grains of all varieties exceeded the reference variant. Preliminary results on spring triticale varieties confirmed its cultivation expediency in the Kostroma region.
Keywords: spring triticale, productivity, grain quality, feed units, digestible protein.
Technologies of laying-in, storage and usage of fodder
A. S. Sereda, E. V. Kostyleva, A. Yu. Sharikov, I. A. Smirnova, L. I. Nefedova, V. V. Ivanov, N. V. Tsurikova, V. V. Skorokhod Development of combined technology of soybean feed additive production based on extrusion and enzyme hydrolysis
The limiting factor of soybean and products of its processing utilization in fodder production is anti-nutritional factors affecting negatively livestock organism. Thermolabile soybean antinutrients are inactivated under heat treatment; thermostable factor negative effect persisting. Thermostable factors include glycinin and β-conglycinin forming around 70 % of soybean protein and exhibiting antigenic properties as well as galactooligosaccharides that are indigestible carbohydrates inducing flatulence, reduction in nutrient digestibility and intestines hypertrophy. Soybean meal and cake combined processing proposed to remove antinutrients and increase targeted product feed value included heated pre-extrusion of raw material, followed by proteolytic and galactosidase enzyme hydrolysis. Meal and cake hydrolysis by protease without pre-extrusion prevented degradation of glycinin A- and B-polypeptides that were protein fractions with a molecular mass of 38 and 20 kDa, respectively. Extrusion under 120–130°С for meal and 130–135°С for cake and soybean followed by proteolysis allowed the complete absence of anti-nutritional factors in protein hydrolysates. Combination of protease and α-galactosidase provided soybean galactooligosaccharides’ complete hydrolysis to available sugars. In vitro analysis showed hydrolyzate protein diges tibility increased by 4 % for meal and cake and by 14 % for soybean.
Keywords: soybean, meal, cake, anti-nutritional factors, extrusion, enzyme, feed additive.
Aspects of forage utilization
R. V. Nekrasov, M. G. Chabaev, M. I. Kartashov, T. M. Voinova Milking cows’ productivity as affected by feeding silage biologically preserved with “Fermasil”
Biological preservatives for ensiling provide high energy and nutritional fodder. The work analyzed novel biopreservative “Fermasil” containing lactobacillus and propionic bacteria. Corn silage was treated by preservative rates of 1, 2 and 3 g t-1 of green mass. Rate of 3 g t-1 was the best maintaining 95.5 % of protein content and 69.9 % of lactic acid concentration and providing good organoleptic properties. The designated amount of “Fermasil” were applied to 1510 t of corn silage on the basis of JSC “Malino”, Stupinsky rayon, the Moscow region. Two groups of 12 black-and-white milking cows were formed to test the effect of untreated and treated with “Fermasil” silage on fodder digestibility, milk productivity, product quality and forage requirements. Daily average milk yield of the experimental group made up 21.79 kg surpassing the one of the reference group by 9.1 %. Feeding with silage subjected to biopreservative increased VFA and bacterial content decreasing the ammonia content and improving the ruminal digestion. The digestion in cows fed with treated silage improved by 0.66-3.02 % compared to the reference group. The “Fermasil” cost amounted to 150 rubles per head. The milk yield increase resulted in additional profit of 2750 rubles per head.
Keywords: silage, ensiling, fodder preservation, biological preservative, milk productivity, ruminal digesta, digestibility, economical efficiency.
Yu. A. Ponomarenko Rapeseed cake, oil and fodder lupine in feedstuff for broiler chikens
Nutritionally balanced feedstuff composing of digestible fodders such as high quality fish meal, soybean, soybean meal and cake is important for broiler chickens’ diet. But their production is limited in the Republic of Belarus. Since import deliveries are expensive and often have low quality regional feed additives’ production is of current interest. The article first analyzes rapeseed cake, oil and fodder lupine in poultry feeding as substitutes for fish, soybean and sunflower meal and oil. Isothiocyanate concentrations were 0.3 and 0.3–0.8 % in rapeseeds and absolute DM respectively. Rapeseed oil contained up to 3 % of erucic acid. The alkaloid content was 0.065 % in fodder lupine. Standards for their maximum amount in feeds were specified. 2, 8 and 12 % of the feedstuff volume of rapeseed cake containing 0.3 % of isothiocyanates can be fed to broiler chickens aged 1-10, 11-24 and over 25 days respectively. Depending on poultry age 8 % of rapeseed cake comprising 0.3-0.8 % of isothiocyanates is permissible for broiler feeding. Experiments took place on Smolevich poultry farm. One reference and six experimental analogue groups were formed; each of them consisting of 100 broiler chickens aged 1 day.
Keywords: rapeseed cake, fodder lupine, rapeseed oil, isothiocyanate, alkaloid, erucic acid.