Economics, management, organization and law in forage production
V. M. Kosolapov, A. A. Kutuzova Substantiating the timeliness of the legislative solutions in grassland and pasture management
The modern scientific development on elimination of the soil and water resources’ destruction processes are generalized. The main course of sown grasslands’ management is specified as creating long-term everlasting swards. The role of natural factors in agricultural ecosystems is estimated via modern methods of energy flows’ assessment. It is noted that formation of the vegetative underground mass that performs as a natural living filter, eliminates nutrient losses, this is a special tip for the “Pure Water” governmental program. Efficient mineral fertilization programs are analyzed as well. Due to the need for hayfields’ and pastures’ amelioration the presented indices of capital investments and their pay-off period are of special importance for the Non-Chernozem zone. The fodder lands need complex examination, and the yield statistics have to be recorded for these areas.
Keywords: grassland forage production, modern developments, implementation ways.
Grassland science and management
V. A. Kulakov, E. G. Sedova Pastures’ productivity and gross energy outcomes as dependent on fertilization system
High level of the pastures’ productivity and grasses longevity is maintained by two fertilization systems: mineral and organic, the latter based on livestock manure, composts and other biologically produced fertilizers. The third system is the combined one, interceding both mineral and organic applications. Several variants of the mentioned systems were tested for 10 years on the experimental pastures of the All-Russian Williams Fodder Research Institute. There were three types of mineral fertilization, two types of organic and six variants of the combined system. The grass pastures’ productivity dynamic was studied together with feed quality, gross energy outcome and its distribution through the elements of the pastoral ecosystem, and other issues. The productivity of the unfertilized pastures reached 35.7 GJ ha-1 of exchange energy for 10 years on average. Using the mineral NPK system for the swards’ top-dressing increased the feed outcome by 140–172 %, organic fertilizers improved the basic productivity by 29–76 %, and the combined systems — by 97–180 %. The obtained results show that to intensify the dairy farming any enterprise can choose and adequate proportion of the pastures with different fertilization systems dependent on the specific fertilizers’ availability. Evaluating the fertilization systems by the gross energy accumulated in the grassland ecosystems and their elements, allowed comparing the role of different anthropogenic factors in gross energy buildup. The versatile implications of grassland forage production have been expressed in the certain energy indices. The natural factors provided a 85.4 GJ ha-1 gross energy gain on the unfertilized pasture. Using mineral fertilization system increased this value by 96–119 %, the organic one gave plus 21–39 % and the combined system of grassland fertilization improved the gross energy accumulation by 75–121 %.
Keywords: productivity, gross and exchange energy, fertilization system, grass pastures.
A. S. Shpakov Environmental role of perennial grasses in the Non-Chernozem zone
The article analyzes the role of perennial herbaceous vegetation in the processes of soil formation. The main directions of using the environmental role of grasses in agriculture are outlined. Specializing the agriculture of the Non-Chernozem region in dairy and meat production is to be based on the field-and-grass system of forage production. Thus it is going to promote rational nature management, to activate sod pedogenesis and enhance the biological productivity of the area.
Keywords: forest zone, environment formation, perennial grasses, field-and-grass system, livestock specialization.
R. A. Idrisov Energy and amino-acid value of legume/grass swards in the conditions of the Trans-Urals steppe
УДК: 633.31/.37 (470.5) (
The task of providing the developing highly-productive animal husbandry and the growing numbers of livestock in the country with complete fodders persists still being an acute problem. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to specify the optimal sward harvesting dates allowing obtaining a maximum nutrient forage yield. The experiments were conducted of formerly arable slope lands now abandoned, in the Trans-Urals steppe of the Bashkortostan Republic. The extreme soil and climatic conditions necessitate the cultivation of sustainable species and grass mixtures. It is found that in drought environment the mixture of alfalfa and wheatgrass provide the maximal yields on slopes. However the productivity of the sown herbage is determined by the harvesting dates. Thus, the maximal yield was formed in the period of ear formation of the gramineous and budding of the legume component, as compares to other development stages. The highest outcome of digestible protein, 516 kg ha-1, is provided by cutting the legume/grass sward during ear formation. It is also experimentally found that the essential amino acids content is increased when the legume/grass mixture is cut in this phase. The best harvesting time providing the highest dry matter yield is ear formation of the gramineous component and budding of the leguminous one. During this research the agrophytocenosis of blue hybrid alfalfa and intermediate wheatgrass provided the best productivity being cut at the optimal development stage.
Keywords: agrophytocenosis, slope lands, amino acids, digestible protein.
Crop_production and arable farming
S. T. Esedullaev, N. V. Shmeleva Methods of creating perennial herbages on the basis of eastern goat’s-rue in the Upper Volga region
УДК: 633.2.039.6: 633.375
The specialties of yield formation by perennial grasses in single-species and mixed stands are studied; the methods of establishing long-term highly productive swards on the basis of eastern goats’-rue are developed for the sod-podzolic soils of the Upper Volga region.
Keywords: perennial legume and gramineous grasses, eastern goat’s-rue, seeding rates, fodder yield and quality.
T. N. Dronova, N. I. Burtseva, I. P. Ivina Cultivating reed fescue on irrigated lands of the Lower Volga
Cultivating multispecies crops of perennial grasses on irrigated lands of the Lower Volga allows utilizing 2–3 % of the photosynthetically active radiation, forming three harvests of high-quality green mass, preserving and improving soil fertility. The mixtures of perennial legumes and grasses are the best practice for long-term use. Reed fescue plays an important role featuring high recover ability, good forage qualities and productive longevity. However, this valuable crop is not widely spread due to the lack of adequately developed cultivation technology for seeds and well-running seed production. Therefore our research was aimed at developing the basic elements of reed fescue cultivation technology to obtain the seed yield of 0.200–0.390 t ha-1. Field trials with this crop, which is uncommon for the region, took place on the experimental farm “Oroshayemoye” on light-chestnut soils. Seeding dates, methods and rates were studied as the factors influencing the crop productivity. The agricultural technique included reserve application of PK and N overdressing during the vegetation period. Sward density was found to increase with advancing age. It had a distinct seasonal dynamics and grew from spring to autumn. Since spring regrowth to seed harvesting, reed fescue was irrigated five times on average. The highest seed yields were collected from the rowseeded crop, and the minimal ones were harvested as a result of drill-seeding. Reef fescue cultivation under irrigation was found energy-effective at optimal seeding dates, methods and rates. Energy efficiency and economic assessment justify reed fescue cultivation for seeds, using the developed technology elements.
Keywords: reed fescue, terms, methods, seeding rates, sward density, productivity.
S. I. Kokonov, V. Z. Latfullin, I. Sh. Fatykhov, N. I. Mazunina Methods of Sudan grass sowing in the Middle Cis-Urals
Organizing high-quality forages production in the Middle Cis-Urals based on highly productive crops is one of the priority tasks in agriculture. Extending the number of the species and cultivars adapted to the local climatic conditions is a significant reserve of energy-rich feed. Placing Sudan grass in the field foraging lands is an important part of this process. The experimental crop rotation of the Crop Production Department of Izhevsk State Agricultural Academy on sod-podzolic clay loam was supplemented with ‘Chishminskaya rannyaya’ Sudan grass. First, sowing date and depth effect on the green mass productivity was studied. Sudan grass was sown on May 15th, 20th, 25th, and 30th and June 5th, 10th, and 15–16th in the trial. The sowing depth was 3–4 cm and 5–6 cm. The second trial was conducted on microplots to study the effect of the sowing depth on the canopy biomass production of Sudan grass. The experimental design included 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 cm depth. The third trial was aimed at finding the optimal seeding rates and sowing methods for maximal Sudan grass yield. The following seeding rates were tested: 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, and 4 million. As to the sowing methods the common 15 cm inter-row spacing was compared to the wide one of 30 cm. It was found that Sudan grass is to be sown since May, 25th to June, 16th, the dry matter yield of 4.69–5.18 tons ha-1 to be obtained. Summer seeding lead to the yield increase of the Sudan grass sown to the depth of 5–6 cm compared to the crops planted at 3–4 cm. The highest dry matter yield of Sudan grass of 5.44– 5.96 tons ha-1 was formed as a result of seeding to the depth of 3–6 cm. Sowing 3.5 million seeds per 1 ha with regular 15 cm spacing provided the highest dry matter yield of 3.78 tons ha-1.
Keywords: Sudan grass, sowing date, seeding depth, sowing method, seeding rate, dry matter yield.
Genetics, biotechnology, breeding and seed production
H. I. Maksimova, V. S. Nikolayeva, A. N. Sivtseva Productivity of new forage crops in the Central Yakutia conditions
New promising fodder crops were selected for the extreme conditions of Central Yakutia. It is found possible in the conditions of short vegetation period to obtain high yields of green mass of the warm-season light demanders such as scarlet amaranth ‘Bagryaniy’, brown millets ‘Baganskoye-88’, maize ‘RIK-340’, sunflower ‘Kulundinets’, grain sorghum ‘Perspektivnoye-5’, and rapeseed ‘SibNIISKh-21’. One of the ways to increase feed protein gain is diversifying the fodder crops via cultivating new promising, high-yielding species and cultivars. The main silage crop of the Republic is oats and its mixtures. New cultivars of the protein-rich crops such as millets, maize, amaranth, rapeseed and sunflower have to be studied. The conditions of Central Yakutia are characterized by small heat reserve during the vegetation period, plenty of mainly clear days, rapid growth of the mean daily temperatures in spring and intensive insolation. All these make it possible to cultivate forage crops with short vegetation period under irrigation. The insolation regime is of great importance for the vegetation. The income of the photosynthetically active radiation in Central Yakutia reaches 1112 MJ per 1 m2 for the period from May to August. It allows growing warm-season and light-demanding crops for silage.
Keywords: new forage crops, watering, green mass, productivity, fertilizers, irrigation, digestible protein.