Economics, management, organization and law in forage production
V. I. Kashin Priorieties of Russian agriculture development (Report of plenary meeting of members of the department of Agricultural Sciences, Russian Academy of Sciences 21. March, 2016, Moscow)
УДК: 631/635; 502/504
Economy reorganisation conducted for the last 25 years destroys the academic science and provide its serious recession; scientific resources are not being used. 41 million ha of farm lands are not cultivated. Soils rapidly lose their fertility under erosion, acidification, waterlogging, increasing percentage of trees and shrubs and salinization. Cattle number (57 million heads) decreased by 2.5 times. Program developed on 12. February. 2016 during Orel Economic Forum offers progressive budget sources: cash withdrawal from off shore companies, progressive tax scale, state monopoly for alcohol and tobacco production and realization as well as nationalization of minerals’ production and processing. Appropriate decisions allow obtaining of 13 trillion rubles of additional budget income. Consequently, 20.9 trillion rubles of federal budget formed without government reserves can be a strong basis for rapid development of Russian economy. Suggested fourfold increase in the branch financing under a proper level of control and management efficiency will result in balanced development of agro-industrial complex according to the latest achievements of science and technology. It also let to cultivate all abandoned farm lands, restore farm-machinery industry, elite seed production, pedigree livestock breeding, collective farms, social and productive village infrastructure and human resources, and develop facilities for product processing and storage.
Keywords: agro-industrial complex, reforming, financing, budget, efficiency, environmental protection.
G. V. Blagoveshchenskiy, V. D. Shtyrkhunov, V. V. Kononchuk 18th International Symposium of Grassland Farmers of European Federation
The article contains the analysis of main scientific reports presented during the International Symposium of Grassland Farmers of European Federation in 2015. The Symposium (Netherlands, Wageningen, July 15-17, 2015) was devoted to the problem of food security, particularly the utilization of highly-productive systems of milk production. According to the reports presented, the problem of food security in Europe is being solved by development of highly-productive agricultural systems. Such systems are characterized by high forage yield and quality of domestic production that provide corresponding livestock productivity. The Symposium showed scientific approaches and practical solutions of self-sufficiency in milk products in various European countries. Their experience can be considered and applied by domestic scientists and farmers. Analysis of the reports indicates the tendency of land reduction used for perennial grasses’ cultivation. It is primarily connected to farm amalgamation, decreasing the size of cow population under simultaneous increasing milk products. Climate changes stimulate maze silage production which also led to a reduction of lands for perennial grasses’ cultivation. The Symposium paid a special attention to novel technological methods. Innovations in milking machine production are aimed at stabilizing or even increasing the number of livestock to be grazed.
Keywords: self-sufficiency in fodder, eco-efficiency, grass, forage, milk.
Grassland science and management
Z. B. Boraeva, S. A. Bekuzarova Agrobiological features in eastern goat’s rue cultivation in North Ossetia-Alania
The paper contains the data on eastern goat’s rue studied in 2008-2012. The experiments took place on Northern Caucasus Research Institute of Hill and Foothill Agriculture. To analyze biological characteristics of the crop its wild types were collected from natural phytocenosis. They were tested together with domestic varieties “Gale” and “Bimoblat” and Belarusian variety “Nesterka”. The research considered plant biological features, productivity and forage mass quality. It also compared eastern goat’s rue wild and cultivated forms with red clover and alfalfa. Before sowing gramineous were treated by nodule bacteria obtained from “Nesterka” rhizosphere. The experiment tested the influence of biological nitrogen on gramineous (winter wheat, foxtail millet and green foxtail) germination ability and productivity. High fodder productivity of eastern goat’s rue, its qualitative parameters and soil nitrogen enrichment revealed big potential of this crop for fodder production and improving soil fertility. Eastern goat’s rue fodder was of high quality. High content of leading shoots in second cut-sward led to increased protein and fat concentrations and reduced sugar and carotene amount. Maximal adaptation of eastern goat’s rue to local conditions allows growing this crop in all regions of the Republic.
Keywords: productivity, fodder quality, nitrogen fixation, farm practice, seed productivity
N. V. Barashkova, M. V. Rastorgueva Smooth brome productivity as affected by the growth regulator “MP05”
The paper focuses on applying ecologically safe biological preparation – growth regulator – on cryomorphic floodplain soils sown by smooth brome. Smooth brome “SibNIISKhoz-189” performed as the object of study. It has the number of economically important traits. Preparation made from fir needles was obtained in the Institute of Chemistry of Solids and Mechanochemistry (Novosibirsk) and showed its effectiveness in the Cryolithic Zone for the first time. Growth regulator “MP05” is finely divided hydrophobic powder. It has light green color and distinctive smell of fir. Smooth brome was treated by 1, 5 and 10 g m-2 of “MP05” during sowing. 10 g m-2 of biocomposite provided the highest sward productivity (3.0 t DM ha-1). Rate of 5 g m-2 significantly increased green mass yield by 3.15 t ha-1, compared to the reference variant. Smooth brome treated by 5 and 10 g m-2 of the biopreparation exceeded the reference variant (no nano-biocomposite) in crude protein by 2.1 times, exchange energy – by 76 % and feed units –by 78 %. 5 and 10 g m-2 of biocomposite increased digestible protein content up to 174-178 g, exceeding the reference variant by 23-25 %. These rates improved hay nutritional value; crude protein content reaching 16.3 %.
Keywords: growth regulator, smooth brome, fir needles, nano-biocomposite, yield, productivity, rate, quality.
V. M. Drincha Simplificated improvement and superficial undersowing on grasslands and pastures
Among practices of simplificated soil improvement, undersowing is more popular in increasing natural forage lands’ productivity. It often allows improving productivity and sward botanical composition avoiding replowing and extra expenses. The paper generalizes technological features of combination of simplificated soil improvement procedures and undersowing on grasslands and fields. Deteriorations of water-air and soil nutrient regimes are the main problems when cultivating perennial crops in many regions. Maintaining grasslands’ and pastures’ productivities requires regular and continuous sod layer aeration. Pasture aeration facilitates water penetration and accumulation in the soil layer up to 50 cm, increases fertilizer absorption by plants, reduces phosphorus and nitrogen fertilizers’ washout under precipitation, softens the upper soil layers (up to 20 cm), eliminates water accumulation on grassland surface and reduces the water flow, improves crop productivity, allows deep root system growth and enhances plant drought-resistance. It is advisable to provide forage lands’ aeration in early spring. It is also necessary to do grass’ or grass mixtures’ undersowing and fertilizer application at the same time. Procedure combination became especially important after the introduction of small-size easy-aggregated sowing machines powered by 12-volt on-board systems of mobile units under the computer control.
Keywords: undersowing, sod layer, aeration, simplificated grassland and pasture improvement, procedure combination, manure, aerator, sowing machine.
Crop production and arable farming
U. M. Sagalbekov, E. U. Sagalbekov, E. T. Syzdykov, G. T. Seytmaganbetova, M. E. Baydalin Innovational agricultural practices in melilot cultivation and harvesting in Nothern Kazakhstan
Melilot is an important crop in arable farming and forage production. It is a biennial green manure crop, used as a substitute to fallow and showing a high content of protein. In the period from 2009 to 2014 Nothern- Kazakhstan Research Institute of Agriculture conducted field trials resulted in 6 innovative patents on cultivation and harvesting technology of melilot for fodder production in the Republic of Kazakhstan (RK). They are aimed at obtaining organic products due to melilot cultivation. Crops growing after melilot require no fertilizers and pesticides. Melilot cultivation also offers the strategy of restoring, maintaining and increasing soil fertility. Soil of the trial field is medium-humic chernozem. Humic layer makes up 25-27 cm; humus content being 4.01 %. To overcome seed hardness 2 novel methods can be applied – scarification and improving germinating ability of melilot seeds. Cultivating 3 melilot varieties (white melilot “Severo-Kazakhstanskiy 7”, yellow melilot “Omskiy skorospelyy” and “Kokshetauskiy 10”) is suggested as a method increasing quality of feeds made from melilot. The are characterized by different dates of cutting. The paper also presents the method allowing coumarin content decrease which is based on pellet forage conservation.
Keywords: melilot, agricultural practice, ecology, fertility, scarification, germinating capacity, fodder quility, harvesting.
O. Yu. Kurenskaya, V. N. Naumkin, M. I. Lukashevich, T. V. Yagovenko Mineral fertilization in improving white lupine productivity in the Cental Chernozem region
Field trials were conducted in 2013-2015 on the base of the department of Plant Breeding, Seed Science and Crop Production of Belgorod State Agrarian University named after V. Ya. Gorin. Soil of the trial field was typical chernozem with low content of humus and high content of loam. The object of the study was high-intensive white lupine variety “Dega”. The experiment included: unfertilized variant (control), N60, Р60, К60, N60P60, N60K60, Р60К60, N60Р60К60, N60Р60К60 + “ZhUSS-2”, N60Р60К60 + “ZhUSS-3”. Mineral fertilizers were applied before sowing while microfertilizers “ZhUSS-2” (Cu — 32–40 g l-1, Мо — 17–22 g l-1) and “ZhUSS-3” (Cu — 16.2–20 g l-1, Zn — 35–40 g l-1) – at budding stage. Climate conditions showed high temperature during the growing seasons and insufficient amount of precipitations at critical periods of crop development. The experiment revealed that combination of macro- and microfertilizers (N60Р60К60 + “ZhUSS-2”, N60Р60К60 + “ZhUSS-2”) positively affected the plant growth, top development and symbiotic system formation. This resulted in seed yield of 2.50 and 2.45 t ha-1 exceeding the control variant by 1.00 t ha-1 (66.7 %) and 0.95 t ha-1 (63,3 %) respectively. Profitability level made up 105.9 and 102.2 % while bioenergetic index – 1.67 and 1.64.
Keywords: white lupine, “Dega”, mineral fertilizer, plant height, air-dry matter mass, active root nodule number, active root nodule mass, seed productivity, eff ectiveness.
E. V. Vlasova, Yu. V. Gorbunova Estimation the early-ripening soybean varieties from VIR collection by ability to mature in central Russia
In the Moscow region the 11 soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) varieties from VIR collection were estimated by the duration of interstage periods in contrastive in temperature and precipitation years (2009–2013, 2015). Soil workability determined the seeding time (5–13 of May). The full seedling emergence of all varieties occurred since 17 of May to 4 of June. Under optimum meteorological conditions, seedlings appeared at 9–11 days after seeding, and at low average daily temperature (+9…+11°С) or under drought early spring conditions they appeared after 19–30 days. The flowering occurred in I–II decades of June. The most of varieties did not significantly differ in the duration since seedling to flowering (from 34 to 48 days in different years). The only late-flowering variety was ‘Bryanskaya 11’ (up to 56 days). The duration since flowering to maturing was 29–75 days in accordance with the variety and the weather conditions. On 6-year average the varieties classified by the duration of the growing period and the sum of active temperatures of this period: the ultra-early ripening variety ‘Svetlaya’ — 90 days, 1650°C; very early-ripening varieties: ‘Kasatka’, ‘Okskaya’, ‘Mageva’ — 94–96 days, 1723–1771°C; ‘Fiskeby V’, ‘Maleta’, ‘PEP 27’ — 97– 99 days, 1793–1826°C; ‘Lantsetnaya’ — 103 days, 1862°C; early-ripening varieties: ‘Severnaya zvezda’, ‘M-27’ — 104–106 days, 1920°C; ‘Bryanskaya 11’ — 110 days, 1941°C respectively. Four varieties (‘Svetlaya’, ‘Kasatka’, ‘Okskaya’, and ‘Mageva’) consistently matured at the optimum time — to II decade of September.
Keywords: soybean, variety, early ripening, duration of the growing period, sum of active temperatures.
Genetics, biotechnology, breeding and seed production
I. M. Shatskiy, V. N. Zolotarev, A. V. Ponomarenko Biological features of tillering and formation the seed yield of smooth brome (Bromopsis inermis (Leys.) Holub) due to the cutting time
The article shows the results of studying tillering biology of smooth brome (Bromopsis inermis (Leys). Holub) hybrid ‘Voronezhskiy 17’ under steppe conditions in the south of the Central Chernozem region. Generative shoots developed from shortened infertile shoots of the previous year with 1–5 leaves. Maximum generative shoots — 78 and 60 % — developed from shoots with four or five leaves. Their seed productivity was by 37–46 % more than it was of the shoots with three leaves, and in 3.4– 3.6 times more than with two. Only 15 % of shortened infertile shoots with two leaves and 50 % with three leaves became generative. Cutting since August 10th to September 20th, the number of shortened shoots with 1–2 leaves increased gradually, with 4–5 leaves — decreased. The number of shoots with three leaves increased from 20 to 41 % in general structure. Cutting the vegetative mass contributed to decreasing general number of shoots by 12–18 %, and to creating more favourable conditions for forming seed yield in the next year. Cutting in August was preferable than in September because then shortened shoots with 4–5 leaves were more developed. Seed yield did not depend on cutting time.
Keywords: smooth brome, hybrid, tillering, cutting, productivity, seeds.
A. E. Nagibin, M. A. Tormozin, A. A. Zyryantseva The new promising bastard alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. nothosubsp. varia (Martyn) Arcang) variety ‘Victoria’
The article presents a short morphological, biological, ecological, and economical description of the new bastard alfalfa variety ‘Viktoriya’. Alfalfa is a longstanding, multicut, high productivity, ecologically flexible crop, and it is a source of protein with balanced amino acids composition. The mainstream of breeding is to create principally new alfalfa varieties for hay and for grazing. They must have yearly stable seed productivity, forage yield, productive longevity, and resistance to main diseases and unfavourable environmental factors. The bastard alfalfa variety ‘Viktoriya’ formed two cuts per year, under favourable weather conditions — three. It matured concurrently with the cultivated variety ‘Sarga’. It formed stable yields on poorly cultivated soil. Sowed in late summer (15–21 of July), it grows, develops, and winters well in the Sverdlovsk region due to high cold resistance. The variety is resistant to long-term soil overwetting in spring for 20 days. The bastard alfalfa ‘Viktoriya’ has a high adaptability for cultivation. The main value of the variety is stable high seed productivity. On completion of state variety trial, the bastard alfalfa ‘Viktoriya’ exceeded the standards from different regions by 0.02–3.3 t ha-1 of dry matter. The maximum yield — 8.8 t ha-1 — was obtained in the Sergach variety test station in the Nizhniy Novgorod region. Since 2016 the bastard alfalfa variety ‘Viktoriya’ was included in the State Register of Breeding Achievements for using in Volga-Vyatka, Ural, and West-Siberian regions of Russia.
Keywords: alfalfa, plant breeding, variety, winter hardiness, seed productivity.