Economics, management, organization and law in forage production
E. V. Ermolayeva Ministry of Agriculture report: planned, performed, presented
Grassland science and management
Z. P. Kotova, G. V. Evseeva, S. N. Smirnov Dynamics of pasture herbages formation in the Republic of Karelia conditions
The results of scientific research on perennial herbages are presented; the contribution of certain species to the total yield formation is estimated during the years of usage. It is found that productive longevity of a herbage mixture is provided by introducing rhizomatous grasses such as smooth brome (Bromus inermis Leyss.) and kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.), as well as more traditional for the Republic of Karelia species like timothy grass (Phleum pratense L.), meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis L.), and orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata L.).
Keywords: perennial grasses, syngenetic variability, productive longevity, pastoral everlasting phytocoenoses.
R. A. Belyaeva, Yu. A. Kozlovа, L. A. Kaneva Efficiency of the methods for improving the productivity of floodplain meadows
УДК: 633.213.032 : 631.8
The results of the research into the effects of mineral fertilization and natural-based biological plant growth and development stimulators applied separately and in combinations describe the productivity of natural grasslands in the floodplain of the Pechora River.
Keywords: mineral fertilizers, growth stimulators “Vaerva”, “Epin”, “Gumat”, productivity.
Crop_production and arable farming
A. P. Eryashev, A. G. Katayev, P. A. Eryashev On the photosynthetic activity of eastern goat’s-rue sward under chemical plant protection
УДК: 633.36/.37: 632.934/
The results of studying the influence of plant protection agent and growth stimulator “Albit” are presented as recorded for the photosynthetic activity and seed yield of an old eastern goat’s-rue sward.
Keywords: eastern goat’s-rue, pesticides, “Albit”, photosynthesis, seed yield.
L. A. Bukhanova, N. V. Zarenkova Use of growth regulators and microfertilizers on soybean crops
The breeding achievements in terms of increasing the soybean sustainability to the unfavourable soil and climatic conditions of the Non-Chernozem zone are still insufficient to provide stable productivity of its crops especially in extreme conditions. In such cases small doses of various growth regulators are used in order to increase the plants’ hardiness to the environmental stresses. In the conditions of the Central Region of the Russian Federation the agronomic effectiveness of applying “Mival-Agro”, “Siliplant”, “Epin” and “Circon” growth regulators was studied on the crops of soybean cultivars ‘Kasatka’ and ‘Maleta’ suitable for the locality. The maximal plant height was observed at the stage of pod formation on the cultivar ‘Kasatka’ treated with “Mival-Agro” and “Siliplant”; ‘Maleta’ maintained its linear growth till the stage of seed filling under all the treatments. Raw and dry biomass gains exceeded the reference values in all the variants. The maximal leaf area of 48.6 thousand m2 ha-1 was observed on the soybean cultivar ‘Maleta’ under the use of “Siliplant”. Its application has also provided the highest photosynthetic potential indices on both the cultivars. All the preparations studied have stimulated pod and seed formation, and their mass per one plant. The maximal pod number and seed content per one plant was also recorded at “Siliplant” application; 1000 seeds’ weight was also increased. The greatest productivity through the two years of experiment was recorded on the crops of ‘Kasatka’. The yield gain resulting from growth regulators’ application on this cultivar has made up to 0.20-1.05 tons ha-1. The productivity of ‘Maleta’ was increased only by “Mival- Agro”, adding 0.35 tons ha-1. As a result of pre-sowing seed treatment with the growth regulators the plantlets became 13–31 % longer and 8–46 % heavier; the maximal indices were gained by using “Circon”. No significant increase of seed vigor or germination ability was observed. As a result of the research conducted, the positive effect of the studied plant growth regulators was found on the yield structure elements, the most responsive to their application being the ‘Kasatka’ cultivar. The effect of “Siliplant” has mostly concerned full pods yield, seed weight per one plant and 1000 seeds’ weight. The positive influence of “Circon” on seed vigor and the seedlings’ mass and length increase is also worthy of note.
Keywords: soybean, northern ecotype cultivars, growth regulators, yield structure elements.
S. A. Semina Influence of fertilizers and growth regulators on maize productivity
УДК: 633.15 : 631.8 : 631
The influence of the graded doses of mineral fertilizers and growth regulators is determined on the morphological features and productivity of maize hybrids ‘Katerina SV’. The highest effect was obtained under N120Р104К60 mineral fertilization and non-root treatment of the crop with growth regulators “Krezactsin” and “Albit”. Fodder units yield increased by 3.7-5.2 t ha-1 under fertilization. The preparations “Krezactsin” and “Albit” provided maize productivity increment of 11.1-31.4 % on all the nutrition backgrounds.
Keywords: maize, fertilizers, growth regulator, productivity, protein.
D. A. Ivanov, N. G. Kovalev, V. A. Tiulin, M. V. Rubliuk, O. V. Karaseva, V. A. Abramov Influence of compost fertilizer on spring wheat productivity in different landscape positions
To increase the spring wheat forage grain production it is possible to apply a multipurpose compost (MPC) as organic fertilizer which is obtained as a result of aerobic processing of organic matter. Using it can be an alternative to applying expensive mineral fertilizers as well as to solve the problem of utilizing organic wastes during the composting process. Efficiency of MPC application as a method to increase crop productivity was studied in dependence on crop location on different landscape elements of a terminal morain in the Tver’ region. The experimental sites formed parallel stripes transecting seven microlandscape types. Unfertilized crop of a spring wheat cultivar ‘Irgina’ sown after four-year-old legume-grass sward, served as a check variant. The test stripe was fertilized with 12 tons of the multipurpose compost per 1 ha, which equals N300P180K120. Locally produced MPC analogous to the foreign products was chosen for the experiment. Standard methods were used to assess the changes in spring wheat productivity and soil microbial activity indices as one of the important features of soil fertility-forming processes. It was found that soil application of the multipurpose compost provides a significant yield increase by 0.25 tons ha-1 on average; however, the value ranged considerably throughout the landscape massive. Under slower water exchange on eluvium and accumulative elements of the landscape compost application is expectedly found more effective. Similarly under more intensive water exchange of transitive localities the influence of MPC on crop yield is almost none. During the experiment changes in soil microbial activity were observed on different landscape elements as a result of the organic fertilizer application. Naturally high speed of linen decomposition was reduced by MPC application, and on contrary at low natural activity of cellulose decomposers it was facilitated by compost fertilizer. The economic analysis of the experimental data obtained has shown that applying the multipurpose compost led to a significant increase of production profitability only on the hilltop, and in the upper part and the col of the northern slope. At the same time a decrease of the production profitability was recorded for other microlandscapes of the studied locality compared to the unfertilized reference stripe.
Keywords: spring wheat, compost, landscape, organic fertilizer.
R. M. Vasylenko Siberian millets yield formation in southern Ukraine
УДК: 633.175:631.5 (477.7
The sowing methods and seeding rates of Siberian millets are studied for the south of Ukraine. Their influence on the yield formation of the certain crop is described. The wide-row (0.45 m) sowing of 2 million seeds ha-1 was the most effective. The maximal panicle length and grain mass per 1 m2 were recorded in this variant. Grain yield amounted 4.2 tons ha-1, with maximal content of crude protein, fat, ash, as well as the best fodder units and digestible protein yield.
Keywords: productivity, Siberian millet, sowing method, seeding rate.
Mechanization, automation and information technologies
N. K. Mazitov, O. A. Sizov, S. Yu. Dmitriev, L. Z. Sharafiev, I. R. Rakhimov, R. L. Sakhapov Environment-friendly technology and engineering for forage lands
Cultivating perennial grasses is linked to soil tillage, sowing and re-sowing. Massive application of imported widecoverage assemblies had produced a number of negative consequences. This machinery does not perform well on stubble in the fields of the Republic of Tatarstan farms. It is suitable for a primary rough tillage, as well as a traditional seeder is. Long-term use of no-till technology was unfavourable for moisture accumulation: soil layers deeper than 0.15 m were turned into a solid mass hardly accessible to water and plant roots. This is especially well observed on perennial crops. No-till farming has also contributed to increasing the disease-spreading rodents’ population. Along with that, weed infestation was increased thus leading to additional expenses on herbicides and, finally, making it difficult to obtain environmentally safe grain and grass forages, and livestock production as a result. Crop yield decrease affecting the gross production escalates the prime costs. Thus, amortization charges reached 2700 rubles per 1 ton of grain, making about 40 % of its primecost, while purchase value is only 4500-5500 rubles. The abovementioned disparities lead to a predictable bankruptcy of the farms. To provide the adequate amounts of agricultural production for food safety as well as rural onsite employment and budget revenues, it is sufficient to use the current homeland agricultural engineering advances.
Keywords: forage lands, moisture accumulation, moisture conservation, aeration tillage, environmental balance, life safety.