Grassland science and management
G. N. Gasanov, T. A. Asvarova, K. M. Gadzhiev, Z. N. Akhmedova, A. S. Abdullaeva, R. R. Bashirov Kizlyar pastures of the Caspian region: climate, soil quality, productivity
УДК: 551.509.22 (470.67)
Kizlyar pastures are the Dagestan center of free-rage animal farming, characterized with light-chestnut and meadow chestnut soils of mainly coarse texture, e. g. sandy loams. Together with severe climate and irrational grazing, it leads to soil deflation and degradation of vegetation. Therefore the local Kizlyar pastures’ productivity was low in the recent years, varying from 0.1–0.3 to 0.7–0.8 tons ha-1 DM. Yet the productivity data may be underestimated if the study was conducted during intensive grazing. The potential productivity of Kizlyar pastures was now assessed in reservation conditions during climatically different periods. The experiment was conducted in 2011– 2013 in Kochubeyskaya Biosphere Research Station (KBRS) of the Caspian Institute of Biological Resources, Dagestan Scientific Center, RAS. Each year studies included calculating the evaporation and precipitation indices, precipitation and aridness integrals; chemical and physical soil fertility properties were described; monthly trends of the phytocenoses’ DM accumulation and seasonal dynamics of their floristic composition were shown. The connections between various environmental factors and phytomass productivity for both types of soils are reflected as equations of multiple regression (separately for ephemeral synusia, and forbs and saltworts). In typical weather conditions ephemera and ephemeroids on light-brown soils yielded 0.90 tons ha-1, grasses and thistles — 0.20 tons ha-1; on the meadow chestnut soils their productivity reached 3.63 and 1.82 tons ha-1 respectively.
Keywords: light-brown soil, meadow chestnut soil, salt forming ions, aridness integral, precipitation integral, phytocenosis productivity, phytocenosisfloristic composition, precipitation ratio.
D. S. Dzybov, N. G. Lapenko Pros and cons of andropogon pastures
Secondary bluestem (andropogon) steppes are the result of changes in the primary virgin zonal lands under the influence of cattle herds, sheep flocks and horse droves. Such a steppe type covers millions of hectares in southern Russia, Eastern Siberia, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, China, Central Asia, and other countries. The features of andropogon pastures are determined by the properties of the dominant grass species, which gave the name to this phytocoenosis. Andropogon (Bothriochloa ischaemum) is a perennial grass with a densely interwoven rhizome. It is an efficient fixer for the slopes; it is resists soil erosion processes and rather low soil fertility. Averages of andropogon phytocoenoses biodiversity differ significantly. The number of species per 100 m² varied from 33 to 45, including 20–25 % of gramineous ones, 5–11 % of legumes, 69–71 % of forbs, 7–30 % of annuals, 6–9 % of biennials, 61–85 % of perennials. Original zonal vegetation types are often present in the andropogon pastures. They are: Agropyron pectiniforme, Festuca valesiaca, Koeleria cristata, Stipa pulcherrima, Stipa lessingiana. The percentage of the dominant species approximated 67 % (45–82 %). Andropogon steppe is an important source of forage in autumn and winter; its insurant significance is very high. Cons of bandropogon pastures are: late start of vegetation growing (mid–late June), short period of active vegetation (30–35 days), low calorific value of the grasses, which makes animals move in search of softer ones. One of important negative characteristics is slowdown, almost to a full stop, of self-healing processes of primary type steppe with a predominance of valuable sod grasses and legumes. If the terrain is suitable for tillage, it is possible to revive the primary zonal steppe with domination of the following species: Agropyron desertorum, Agropyron pectinatum, Koeleria cristata, Stipa pulcherrima, Stipa lessingiana, Bromopsis inermis, Bromopsis riparia, Festuca valesiaca, Festuca rupicola, Medicago romanica, Lotus caucasicus, Onobrychis arenaria, Poterium polygamum and some pinnate spear-grasses. To achieve this, the “agricultural steppe” method should be applied.
Keywords: biodiversity, andropogon steppe, zonal steppe, phytocoenosis, ecology, ecosystem.
A. V. Baranov, A. V. Potapova, A. N. Minaev, O. N. SitnikovaDomesticated moose (Alces alces) forage land and habitats in Sumarokovo reserve in the Kostroma region
Since 1963 moose domestication went on the Sumarokovo moose farm in the Kostroma region. Studying moose forage reserve allows evaluating the animal feed security for a particular area and calculating its potential inhabitance. Our aim was to study the forage reserves of the Sumarokovo moose farm. GPS-monitoring allowed mapping Sumarokovo attendance by moose (based on the 2005–2014 data). We also mapped females’ individual habitats in spring and in summer after calving. Presence or absence of moose activity traces (tree-bites, chewed plants, etc.) was registered for all sites mapped as well as sources of environmental components disruption and degree of adverse exogenous processes (surfaceflooding, bogging and others.). Our studies have shown that forage reserve of farm paddocks and ripe grey alder and spruce forests surrounding the farm are markedly depleted. The animals have no shortage of fodder in summer, at a distance of more than 1 km from the farm. Moose prefer forest areas with dense undergrowth dominated by aspen, rowan, birch, willow, raspberry, and meadowsweet in a grassy synfolium as well as wetlands, forest edges, overgrown fields, openings, gardens and villages. Sites where undergrowth is rare or represented mainly by grey alder were visited infrequently. Middle-aged, ripening and overmature spruce forests were used by moose only when moving to areas with rich food supply. Young spruce forests were used as forage lands in winter. From January to April domestic moose mostly stay near logging areas. At the time of the survey (late July to early August), the greatest number of bites was found on aspen (Populus tremula L.), rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L.), willow (Salix caprea L. and S. triandra L.) undergrowth and fireweed (Hamaenerion angustifolium (L.) Scop.). During lactation period the females don’t move away from the farm more than 3–4 km, due to the individual territory size and the need to return to the farm for milking twice a day. In spring and in autumn this distance was increasing up to 16 km. In general, the Sumarokovo forage reserves satisfy the nutritional needs of mooses inhabiting this territory.
Keywords: moose, moose domestication, moose farm, Sumarokovo reserve, moose foraging plants, habitat.
Crop_production and arable farming
Ya. Z. Kaipov Soil-improving and productive value of fodder crop rotations in the South Urals steppe
УДК: 631.582:633.2/.3 (47
Designed with respect to the economic conditions of a particular climatic zone, forage crop rotations can be an effective way to increase the productivity of arable lands while preserving their fertility. The experiment was conducted in 2000–2010. Seven-field lea rotation and five-field by-farm rotation were studied. Their productivity and impact on soil properties were marked along with their resource efficacy in the South Urals steppe. These experimental rotations were chosen as the most productive of the five previously studied in 1992–2000. The lea rotation consisted of the following parts: alfalfa + smooth brome, barley, rape, vetch + oat, and Sudan grass. The byfarm rotation consisted of corn, winter rye, vetch + oat, mohar + melilot, and clover. The trial variants differed in the background of mineral nutrition (no fertilizers, applied at recommended rates, or with targeted rates of fertilizers) and tillage systems (conventional and minimum). Yield, (tons FU ha-1), soil humus content, mobile phosphorus and available potassium content were determined. The latter was calculated only for the by-farm rotation. Perennial grasses and melilot provided accumulation of organic matter, also stabilizing the humus content in the topsoil or increasing it up to 0.01–0.31 %, depending on the variant and cycle, in the by-farm and in the lea rotations, respectively. Fertilizers provided increased content of available forms of nutrients, especially under minimum tillage. Average annual productivity of lea rotation under targeted rates of fertilizers and minimum tillage was 3.1 ton FU ha-1. Conventional tillage resulted in 3.0 ton FU ha-1. The average annual productivity in the by-farm rotation was the same under both tillage systems — 4.1 ton FU ha-1.
Keywords: forage crop rotation, lea rotation, by-farm crop rotation, soil humus condition, productivity, tillage.
N. P. Malyarchuk, D. I. Kotelnikov, P. V. Pisarenko, I. A. Bidnina Maize grain productivity depending on soil tillage and fertilization
The article analyses the effect of soil tillage and fertilization on maize grain productivity on irrigated lands of the Southern Plains of Ukraine. It was found that the highest productivity of the crop is reached at soil tillage to the depth of 28–30 cm and fertilization with N180.
Keywords: maize, soil tillage, density of soil texture, productivity.
Genetics, biotechnology, breeding and seed production
V. A. Sapega Productivity and adaptability parameters of millet varieties cultivated for green forage and seeds
The aim of the research was to assess productivity and adaptive potential of millet varieties. It used the results of variety trials for green forage and seeds on the Yalutorovsk State Breeding Foundation in the Northern forest-steppe of the Tyumen region. Seven varieties of millet were studied. It is noticed that within the specific adaptive reaction the varieties respond to the same conditions selectively. Ratings of the varieties according to their green mass and seed productivity do not coincide when compared through the years of study; this indicates various nature of interaction between the genotypes and environment. In 2011–2013 on average, ‘Bakhetle’ showed the highest green mass productivity (17.7 tons ha-1), and ‘Nur’ provided the highest seed productivity of 0.91 tons ha-1. All of the millet varieties were characterized by a large variation in productivity, both for green forage, and seeds. Three groups of varieties were allocated according to their ecological plasticity: ‘Barnaulskoye 98’ (green forage), and ‘Barnaulskoye 110’ (seeds) are strongly responsive to a change of conditions (bi > 1), they are characterized as intensive. ‘Barnaulskoye 110’ (green forage), ‘Barnaulskoye 98’, ‘Bakhetle’, ‘Nur’ and ‘Sputnik’ (seeds) are plastic (bi = 1). The changes in their productivity completely correspond to the changes in cultivation conditions. ‘Altaiskoye Zolotistoye’, ‘Krupnoskoroye’ (green forage and seeds), ‘Bakhetle’, ‘Nur’ and ‘Sputnik’ (for green mass) are poorly responsive to a change of conditions (bi < 1), but better adapted for the average and the worst conditions. The results of the researches showed low adaptability of the millet varieties cultivated for green forage and seeds. The best ones according to this parameter are ‘Nur’, ‘Bakhetle’ (green forage), ‘Krupnoskoroye’, and ‘Nur’ (seeds). On the basis of the complex assessment of their productivity and adaptability parameters in the conditions of the Northern forest-steppe of the Tyumen Region, the best varieties are ‘Altaiskoye Zolotistoye’ and ‘Nur’ for green forage, and ‘Barnaulskoye 98’ and ‘Krupnoskoroye’ — for seeds.
Keywords: millet, varieties, productivity, ecological plasticity, adaptability.
A. N. Emelyanov, T. A. Voloshina Results of winter rye variety trials for forage in the environmental and climatic conditions of the Southern part of the Far East
Winter rye (Secale cereale) is one of the obligatory components in the green forage conveyor of the Southern part of the Far East. At the same time there is shortage of highly productive, winter-hardy, lodging-resistant cultivars possessing the best grain quality indices for designated use. The local farms use the removed from the zonal catalogue ‘Spasskaya mestnaya’ cultivar or other available ones. The article presents the results of environmental testing of 20 winter rye cultivars for fodder use, carried out in 2010–2013 at the experimental fields of Primorye Research Institute of Agriculture. The cultivars were obtained from the research institutions of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Korea; the standard is ‘Spasskaya mestnaya’. The weather conditions during the research varied, allowing sufficient evaluation of the cultivars’ adaptiveness to the conditions of the Southern part of the Far East. ‘Pyshma’, ‘Iset’, ‘Parom’, and ‘Volkhova’ showed the best winter hardiness: they were inferior to the standard by 0.2–0.4 points on average. The cultivars from the Republic of Korea were the least winter-hardy. ‘Kogu’ cultivar was the most early-maturing: its period from the beginning of spring aftergrowing till mowing maturity was 41 days. ‘Volkhova’, ‘Parom’, and ‘Iset’ were distinguished by consistently high productivity. They exceeded the standard in green mass productivity by 9.2–12.2 tons ha-1 for three years on average. Bioenergetic productivity of the winter rye cultivars was also estimated. The cultivars ‘Volkhova’, the Hybrid population, ‘Krona’, ‘Talovskaya 41’, ‘Alfa’ and ‘Parom’ were characterized by the maximum dry matter outcome per 1 ha. Based on the results of conducted tests, the cultivars have been chosen for possible use in the conditions of the Southern part of the Far East.
Keywords: the Primorye Territory, winter rye, cultivars, productivity, winter hardiness, bioenergetic productivity.
Mechanization, automation and information technologies
V. M. Drincha, A. P. Sangadiev Rules and practice of grain aeration by vertical pipes
The grain freshly delivered from the field meets the requirements to moisture content and dockage very seldom. Primary sieving, ventilating and drying are usually needed. Using ventilation equipment allows shrinking the grain losses during drying and further mechanical processing, and on through the storage period. The simplest technical means for grain aeration are vertical pipes, which may be portable, screw-like drawn into the grain, or stationary. The distinctive features of the latter ones compared to other blower pipe types are high processing efficiency and low cost.
Keywords: aeration, stationary aeration pipes, airflow speed, grain mass, grain losses.